how to make a gluten-free all-purpose flour mix

(Update: If you’d like to buy our all-purpose gluten-free flour flour blend, instead of making it yourself, you can buy some here.)

As you know, we like to make our own flour mixes in this house. Any of our recipes that call for a gluten-free all-purpose flour mix are based on a 40/60 ratio: 40% whole grain and 60% white flours/starches. Once you figure out your flours, and you shake up a big container of it? You have flour for any recipe you want to create.

However, we haven’t been able to show you exactly what we mean until now.

Here’s me, being goofy again, explaining how to make a gluten-free all-purpose flour mix. (We have one on the whole-grain mix coming soon.)

(Video edited by the incomparable Smith Bites Photography. Thank you!)

And again, if you’d rather buy our gluten-free flour, go here.

In the mix I demonstrated here, we used 200 grams of sorghum flour, 200 grams of millet flour, 300 grams of sweet rice flour, and 300 grams of potato starch. (That’s for 1000 grams of flour mix. If you want twice that, simply multiply everything x 2. If you want 5 times that amount of flour, simply multiply everything x 5.) That’s the combination I have been using lately, mostly because I tried to simplify this for you, using as few flours as possible.

Remember that wheat flour is not all gluten protein. It’s part protein and part starches. That’s why we mix whole-grain flours (most of which are very high in protein) with starches (not much nutritional value but they help make the flour mix hold together and make it look white enough to make familiar-looking baked goods).

But that’s just the flour mix we use here. This is really important to us: we want you to make your own flour mix. Please don’t think of us this as our flour mix. Make it your own. We are happy as heck that the percentages of whole grain flours to white flours works in gluten-free baking. Now, make your own.

In case you were wondering, here are the gluten-free flours available to you, broken down by categories:


brown rice flour
buckwheat flour
corn flour
mesquite flour
millet flour
oat flour
quinoa flour
sorghum flour
sweet potato flour
teff flour


arrowroot flour
potato flour
potato starch
sweet rice flour
tapioca flour
white rice flour


almond flour
chestnut flour
coconut flour
hazelnut flour


fava bean flour
garbanzo bean flour
kinako (roasted soy bean) flour

See how many choices we have?

Now, as you can see, there are more categories than whole-grain flours and white flours. The nut flours and bean flours are their own categories. However, if I add some to the gluten-free all-purpose flour mix, I add them as whole grains. (Technically, sweet potato isn’t a grain but we put it in that category.) Why? Because they’re so high in protein. However, understand that they work differently than sorghum or millet.

I really don’t like the bean flours. To me, they always taste like beans. The exception for me is the roasted soy bean flour, which I’m loving in cookies lately. However, you might love garbanzo flour. Add it as a whole-grain flour in this mix.

I really love almond flour in crumbles and bready things. However, remember that the nut flours are full of good fats, so they will throw off the ratio of your baked goods. Recently, I made a pie crust that just didn’t work. Frustrated, I kept puzzling as to what happened. Then I remembered I had added some almond flour to the mix and that mean the crust had too much fat.


What we like to do is make the gluten-free all-purpose flour mix with the whole-grain flours and white flours. Then, if I want a specific taste? I’ll add almond flour as part of the total weight of flour in a recipe. Or a bit of roasted soy flour. I play.

So you can make a mix based on what you like, what you need, and what you can afford. Allergic to rice? Make a mix with millet, sorghum, arrowroot, and potato starch. Some of those whole-grain flours not available where you live? Use brown rice, corn flour, cornstarch, and white rice. You want to make up a mix based on what you have in the kitchen that moment? Go for it.

Of course, it’s not that simple. Each of the flours absorbs water differently. (Coconut flour sucks all the moisture out of a baked good, which is why it annoys me.) Some flours have a particularly strong taste — like mesquite or quinoa — so you want to use them in small doses. But you’ll find your way. Keep playing.

This is really all about playing.

(Also, remember this: if you want to convert your favorite gluten recipe gluten-free? Start by subbing 140 grams of this flour mix for every 1 cup of gluten AP flour.)

Start baking!

(And if you’d rather buy our gluten-free flour, click here.)

190 comments on “how to make a gluten-free all-purpose flour mix

  1. Jasmine Pahl

    Hi Shauna,

    I used a blend of white rice, brown rice and tapioca flours. My cookies were way too fragile; they barely made it to my mouth! What do I need to do differently? Thanks!


    1. shauna

      What percentages of each do you use? That’s probably the key. I would say some diversity away from the rice would help. Try the mix we showed here and see how those cookies come out.

    2. Sarah

      Jasmine – what kind of cookies? There are a lot of other factors in any given recipe such as how much fat (butter or oil) or liquid you use. Another important thing is your oven temperature. Finally, many recipes call for Xanthan or Guar gum to “hold everything together” and keep from crumbling, but unfortunately the gums also bother a lot of people’s tummies so if you don’t want to use that try throwing in a tablespoon of ground flaxseed that is soak in one tablespoon hot water into your recipe. It basically turns into a “goo” that is really good at keeping baked goods more… well, normal basically.

    3. Jen

      I love rice flours for thickening sauces and making roux, but in my hands it makes baked goods too crumbly when it is the main flour.
      I’ve been able to convert any standard cookie recipe I’ve tried thus far using a blend of equal parts potato starch, sorghum, millet, oat and sweet rice flours, with approx 150g of the final blend per cup of all-purpose flour requested in the recipe (140 doesn’t work for me, I have no idea why. I blame latitude and the Great Lakes). No xanthan or guar gums. This has worked for drop cookies, shaped cookies, rolled/cut cookies, brownies, quick breads and even some pound-type cakes. For pizza crust, I like to up the total starch (potato + sweet rice) to 50%, reduce whole grains to 30% and add 20% garbanzo flour, otherwise using Shauna and Danny’s recipe. I think the 40/60 that Shauna suggests would work better for me in cakes since the extra starch would make it lighter and give more lift. I’ll have to play around with it.

  2. Molly

    Thank you so much for this post! I have been traveling and discovered chickpea flour and lentil flour. They use the chickpea flour to make a crepe like dish called dosa. I’ve bought some to bring back to the States, but I don’t know how easy it is to find there!

    Also, I couldn’t find a post on your site for essential cooking utensils. I’ve been nomadic for awhile now (doing a lot of traveling since my celiac diagnosis…a challenge in its own right!) and can’t wait to get settled in one place to set up my own gluten-free kitchen. But I’m not sure which pots, pans, and other utensils are must-haves? What fancy gadgets are a waste of my time and money and what is worth the investment in your opinion?

    1. Jabbara

      Molly, chickpea (garbanzo) flour is usually available in E. Indian grocery stores labeled as Besam flour. Since it comes from overseas there’s no garantee it hasn’t been contaminated in processing but I haven’t had a problem. Bob’s Red Mill also sells it online. I love how easy it is to make savory pancakes with just chickpea flour, enough water to make a thin batter and seasonings. I often add grated vegetables to the batter. Onions, garlic and curry powder are yummy in it.

      1. Justyna

        Hey guys 🙂 You can make your own chicke pea flour…just put some chickpeas in a high speed blender (like Vitamix) and wizz it… it will make a lot of noise but it really works (with oats/almonds/hazelnuts or even chia seeds too ) 🙂

  3. jenn

    nice video and nice production. i love the demystification. thanks!
    p.s. super cute short hair! 🙂

  4. Kim

    Thank you! Thank you! Thank you! I have always been a big baker and after having to go gluten free I have felt very confined in my kitchen. I am definitely going to make my own flour mix and get my bake on! Thanks again!

  5. Kate Lam Sam

    Hi ya Shauna!

    I’m not able to get Sweet Rice flour (or GF Oat, Mesquite, Teff) in NZ, what would you recommend I exchange it for? I know you recommend playing with the flours, but they are really expensive over here, and the pre packaged mixes are worse.
    I use GF flour usually for waffles, cakes, and pastry.

    Thanks very much!

    1. Mary

      Kate, do you have any Asian markets in NZ? Indian, Korean, Chinese, Japanese markets often have the sweet rice flours — and lots of other great flours too — I find sorghum and millet in the Asian markets too.

    2. Jen

      I ordered sweet rice flour from Amazon (Bob’s Red Mill) since it is hard to find in stores near me. Now I’ve got a good stash. 🙂

    3. sheree

      sweet rice flour is also called Moshiko and is found in the Asian section of the grocery so look for that. Here it comes in a white box with red writing on the box. Hope this helps

  6. Alli

    Hi Shauna,

    Where do you purchase your flours? Is there an online distributor that you use? Looking for the cheapest option…..thought I’d ask the expert!



    1. Toni

      the cheapest place I have found to buy the flour and a lot of GF items is My digestive enzymes alone are about $6.50 cheaper that my local health food store. If you ever have to call them for anything they are very nice and accommodating too.

  7. Rebekah

    Does the amount of hot water soaked flax seed change for different kinds of baked goods, or is it a tbls for each cup in any baked good? How specific does it need to be? I usually use xanthum gum, but I’d love to try the flax method. Thanks!

  8. Lilly

    Have you heard of navy bean flour? In my recent Savorfull sampler box they gave us a package of noodles made from navy bean flour as well as just a bag of the flour itself. (I think the brand is Mrs. Glee’s – they say that they mill it in such a way that it’s easy to digest and mostly neutral) For the flour they say you can sub up to 20% of your normal other flours if you want to add in protein and fiber.

    I’m also trying to lose a lot of weight that was put on from years of feeling like crap and unable to exercise. In addition to cutting out the gluten, dairy and soy I’m aiming for low-glycemic-index foods as much as possible, but I understand that it’s not possible to cut out ALL the white stuff when trying to replicate baked goods. But I heard that if you increase the protein content of a high-GI food, it’ll lower the GI number overall.

    1. shauna

      Lilly, what you might want is our whole-grain flour mix. Do a search for it on our site and see the recipes that use it. We’ll do a video on it soon.

  9. mary sheppard

    I am very new to gluten free baking. When the flour recipe for all purpose flours are given isn’t there another ingredient that is always needed to be added when you are actually making the item? I think what I’m asking is about an ingredient like guar gum. And is that fairly easy to find? Is there anything else that I should have on hand when planning to use gluten free all purpose flour? I apologize if some of this is very basic info. I am requesting. Like I said I am very new to this.

    1. Andrea

      You might want to try looking for xanthan gum – that’s easier for me to find (I have yet to see guar gum in a store near me). This acts as a binder in gluten-free baked goods. It can usually be found in the same section as the specialty flours, or in the gluten-free section. The package I purchased recently had a ratio printed on it that indicated how much xanthan gum to add per cup of flour used depending on the type of food. Though you want to be careful when using gums – some people are sensitive to them.

      1. shauna

        You really don’t need gums to make the cookies hold together. What’s important is that you have the right ratio of flours to fats to eggs, etc. Pick a recipe you know is constructed well — anything by David Lebovitz or Dorie Greenspan, for example — and mimic it exactly, subbing only the flour by weight. That’s all you need to do.

    2. shauna

      You don’t need guar gum for most recipes. The only recipes that need something extra are the ones that rely on gluten: bread, rolls, pizza, etc. We like psyllium husk best. Look for our video on it to see why!

  10. Cari

    Best post ever! Thank goodness I have a PhD in math in residence. I am so math impaired but this really helped me. I will never forget the very first time I baked using a mix of grains and starches! What a huge difference it makes. Mixing up a huge batch really does make gluten-free baking almost transparent. Can’t wait for individual tutorials on each flour.

  11. Nancy Dower

    Thanks so much for this. I’m new to eating GF, and can’t believe how good I feel already! So my questions is, can I use your flour mixture anytime a receipt calls for all-purpose flour? In the same amount, or is there a conversion ratio?

      1. Christine

        Just the information I was looking for. Does the 140 gr gluten free per cup of traditional ap flour in this recipe apply to your whole grain ap mix as well. I use the whole grain ap mix and it seems heavier. Thanks!

      2. Alice

        I hope I am not asking the exact same question as below. But will 140 grams per cup work with any gluten free flour mixture as long as there is the 40/60 ratio? Even if none of the mixtures use the grain flours; only the bean, nut and starch flours?

        1. shauna

          Yes, that will generally work. Each of the flours absorb liquid a bit differently, so you might have to add or subtract water. But this is the best base!

  12. Wendy

    Thanks for this great video – you are a natural in front of the camera. 🙂 I realized when watching it is that what keeps messing me up is that I haven’t bought flour containers that are big enough to get everything mixed up without it ending up on the kitchen counter. (I’ve been trying to put it in a smaller plastic container and stir.)

    On another note – if anyone wants to experiment more with quinoa flour but doesn’t like the strong taste, toasting helps a lot. You just need to toast for about 90 minutes at 200 degrees and the flavor becomes nutty and much less earthy.

  13. Jeri

    Love you new videos. Sometimes simple is so better. I never thought of using such a big container to store a mix. So easy to mix it without all the mess I’m prone to make. Thanks.

  14. Lilly

    Oh, one more question…
    Not that I EVER have had good results from baking but I was reading up on flours and how they started making a new wheat 100 or so years ago that had more gluten, which resulted in baked goods being fluffier and flakier.
    So what product(s) can help replicate the fluff and the flake?

    1. shauna

      What this AP mix does is take the place of the wheat flour you have been using. So, this should do the trick.

  15. Katherine

    I’ve been using your wholegrain flour mix in my baking (with amazing result, thank you!), and I was just wondering if there were any sorts of recipes that would need this starchier AP flour or can I just use the wholegrain mix for everything?

    1. shauna

      It’s really a matter of taste. I prefer most things to be whole-grain now, except for pie and pizza. But most folks, and particularly the ones who are new to this, are trying to replicate the feeling of their old baked goods. This is best for that.

    1. shauna

      A friend of ours built it for us and I LOVE it. If you want him to build you one, I’ll put you in contact with him!

      1. Cari

        Thanks, I think Tina could build it, after all she has built a wooden canoe, a kayak and is currently working on a wooden motor boat. Good for more than her math skills. I would need to find a place for it. It is so useful but more importantly attractive. I love how you can just see what you need in a wide open space and don’t have to jam stuff into cupboards.

  16. DebZ

    I’m not a huge fan of the new video trend on food blog sites, but I have to say this was really well-produced and the explanations of the different ingredients was very helpful. Thanks!

    1. shauna

      We just want them to be useful and fun. For us, it’s one of the best ways to answer questions that keep coming up.

  17. Marylou Germy

    Love the videos and your contribution to GF baking. Concerning quinoa flour, I’ve noticed that especially Bob’s Red Mill brand can have a strong smell and sometimes bitter taste similar to quinoa that hasn’t been washed. I wonder if they wash their quinoa before they mill it. Also, quinoa flour develops a strong flavor when it is rancid. Some of the high protein flours do develope rancidity. A grocer where I live used to carry the Ancient Grains ( brand of quinoa flour and it never had a strong taste or odor. Unfortunately they stopped carrying the brand and it has to be ordered either online or thru my health food store, but it is def my brand of choice for quinoa flour.

  18. karen

    I don’t have a scale, how can I measure out the correct amount of flour to use?

  19. Caryn

    THANK YOU for this. I made Zucchini “Fries” tonight and they were awesome…I used Schar Gluten Free Bread Crumbs instead of regular ones. I was sitting her writing a blog post about them when I realized that I sort of want to play with them some more — they were yummy, but, I think they can be even yummier and healthier. I hadn’t figured out what I was going to do until I read your post — I’m going to use some Bob’s Red Mill Almond Meal in the bread crumb and cheese mixture. I’m so excited to try them that I think we’ll probably have them tomorrow. LOVE the idea of adding a protein to this healthier-than-it-sounds treat! (Want the recipe? Here it is:
    (Pictures and links to come tomorrow…)

  20. Toni

    To cut down on the carbs you can substitute part of the potato starch for cornstarch. A great bread I make actually using Shauna’s recipe that I tweaked to make it lower carbs I use 1 cup millet flour,1/4 cup tapioca,1/4 cup sorghum,1/2 c.pot. starch, 1/2 c. corn starch, and 1/2 c. sw. rice flour. This works good for her Sandwich bread recipe. I have never tried it for any kind of cookies. It is 1 1/4 cups whole grain flours and 1 3/4 white flours and starches so it doesn’t follow the 40/60 rule like she mentioned above. But this is a great blog and video Shauna and it was fun for me to play around with this bread mix when I was trying to make it as low in carbs as I could get it.

    1. Toni

      It seems like a lot of flours to use but you get used to it and it saves a lot of money and once you taste it you don’t want to buy it anymore. I mix up my “bread mix” ahead of time and keep it in the freezer so I only have a few ingredients left to add to finish the bread.

  21. Shawnette Fox

    I have spent the last year trying to find a good AP mix-the closest I got tasted great, but everything was to to to soft. Mushy almost. I blame the brown rice flour (not because I necessarily have a reason, I just always blame the brown rice flour). The last batch I made I adjusted primarily because I was low on my usual flours, and it was AWESOME. So awesome. Really awesome. Awesome to the point where I’m afraid to make it again in case it isn’t as awesome. My wheat eating friends agreed it was awesome. Did I mention it was awesome? I’m sure one of the key factors was upping my starch closer to what you suggest-in case you’re curious about my awesome flour blend, I will tell it to you (my son broke my scale using it to weigh dandelions, so this is in cups): 4.5 C sorghum, 4.5 C millet, 4 C brown rice, 2 C teff, 8 C tapioca starch. I think next time I may use white rice flour instead of brown and see what that does. Playing with flours is fun, it’s chemistry for us homeschoolers!

    1. shauna

      That does sound like an awesome flour mix! All the whole-grain flours help. In fact, when we post the video on how to make a whole-grain flour mix, I’m hoping people will switch. We’re all so tied to white flours. But in performance, the more whole-grains, the better.

      1. Toni

        I think you could substitute some of the Tapioca starch with Cornstarch. It would save some money and I think it helps to make baked goods “lighter”. I know when I bake a cake(not GF) I never buy cake flour. You can make it yourself by adding some cornstarch to regular flour

    2. Lex

      I can’t for the life of me find GF teft or millet and I live in the boonies so ordering from online is really tricky – very few companies will ship to PO boxes. I can get quinoa pretty easily though. Do you think that would work at a substitute in your blend? I’m open to any other suggestions you think might work too, just not potato, corn or nuts.


  22. Marla

    Wow that was super helpful. Even though you have shared the ratios in the past, watching you assemble with your descriptions of the flour makes it seem not so cumbersome a process. I work in healthcare, and your blog is one i always recommend. As always, thank you for the work that you do. It is appreciated.

  23. Betsy

    This was so helpful and makes so much sense. I used the ratio and the flours I have on hand to make banana bread last night. It’s a pretty forgiving bread, but still — one of the best loaves I’ve made yet. Thanks so much for sharing your knowledge!

  24. Steph

    Would this mix work with the 36 hour cookies? I love that recipe so much, but putting all those flours together is daunting. Although maybe thats a good thing, because those cookies are definitely a “sometimes food”!

  25. Ginny

    Over a year ago I bought your books and read your entire blog. Going GF has helped so much, and your videos you’ve made (both of you) are a tremendous help. I have fibromyalgia and a tight budget, so if I bake, it’s going to be one batch. GFG&C videos are fabulous as I’m very visual, and because of all the time you and Danny spend playing, working, creating, and sharing, I can have some really great food. I love to cook again!

    Thanks so much for all you do, and making it so satisfying to be in the kitchen.

  26. Marc

    Hi Shauna,

    I’ve been reading your blog for a few years, but I’ve never commented before, and therefore I’ve never said “Thank you.” But I am so thankful for you sharing your journey and your discoveries with GF baking and cooking. Your post(s) on all-purpose GF flour mixes have been among the most helpful things I’ve ever read, and opened up a whole world for my family. I love baking, and had all but given up hope that I’d ever be able to eat “good food” again when I went GF 3 years ago.

    For about the last year, I’ve had pretty good luck mixing Brown Rice, Sorghum, Tapioca Starch and Potato Starch. Sometimes I’ll throw a little raw coconut flour in if I’m wanting a slightly sweeter flour. Or if I’m making something like a spice loaf (carrot, zucchini, etc), I’ll add some millet or almond flour.

    I’ve learned to love experimenting in the kitchen because of my need to go GF, and your encouragement. I thoroughly enjoy your blog. Thank you!


  27. Sarah G

    Please tell/show us how you organize and store your flours. Also, I use your whole grain mix. If I want to use as little starch as possible…. can you describe if/how/why it would/n’t work to decrease starches from your whole grain ratio 70/30 mix?

    Looking forward to the videos about each individual flour. Hope you’ll mention the cost effectiveness of each one (Just realized how expensive Amaranth is compared to Millet. Also hazelnut, which we use a ton of for my adapted version of this recipe that I’m sure Lu would love (and you too!): (Best fresh or eaten frozen YUM)

  28. Toni

    Oh Man!! They’ll be Trouble here in Texas. I looked up the 36 hour choc. chip cookie recipe and they look unbelievable. I just have to make them using a mix similar to this or I might go by that recipe and substitute the Amaranth flour. I have been trying to lose weight or not gain back what I have lost. But, fortunately I have a teenager that loves whatever I bake so that’ll hopefully save me!! LOL

  29. Dana

    Love the videos! I watch them with my four year old daughter who has celiac and she said, looking at you Shauna, she’s a gluten free chef? with awe in her voice. We made the flour and I’m so excited to bake with it. Can you let me know what recipes it would work best with? I plan to make the lovely strawberry apricot cake, but what else would work? Cookies, cakes, breads? Is it a replacement for any flour combo in your archives or only certain recipes?

  30. Deane


    Thanks for the information and the recipe. It’s fun and helpful to see the videos and have you walk us through.

    I’ve been playing around with you gf flour recipe since your post back some time ago. I even went so far as to create a chart with the Each flour’s protein, fibre, fat and protein. But my breads, biscuits and cookies still turn out heavy. I think you have given me some hints as to why.

    Do you a source for understanding how these flours work? What to expect?

    Thanks so much. Everyday I learn a little more, and not just about baking but about life fromo you, Danny and Lu.

    1. shauna

      Deane, thank you for your kind note at the end. As for the baked goods, each one is a separate issue. Can you give me a specific example?

  31. Amélie

    Hi! I just wanted to say how wonderful the new videos are. The image is great, and I like the editing, but the best improvement is the sound! Everything is so clear now, and it was really a joy to watch this video. 🙂

  32. Sheri E.

    Thank-you for all these recent videos. I’m really enjoying them. I’ve been using your AP mix for awhile now and love baking by weight. I’m excited that you have a whole grain one as that is more up my alley. Thanks for making GF food and food in general yummy and appealing.

  33. Sally C.

    I cannot use flax seed nor can I eat eggs, but I have found that adding anywhere from 1/2 teaspoon upwards of unflavored gelatin to my baked goods (depending on the size of the recipe) holds them together well and they are considerably less crumbly. In addition, the gelatin is good for hair and nails.

    I bake in small amounts because I’m single and I usually use 1/2 teaspoon of unflavored gelatin for a small batch of cookies or a single cake layer.

    There is no need to mix the unflavored gelatin with water first, which I used to do. Adding it to the dry ingredients works just as well and is much easier.

  34. Debbie H

    I have a favorite recipe..pumpkin chocolate chip muffins,it calls for 3 cups of flour. and 4 eggs plus the remaining ingredients I want to try it with coconut flour and not sure what to adjust or add…Can you help me out..Thx

  35. kirsten

    If you add almond flour, you were saying that would put too much fat in a pie crust. Soooo…is there any rule about reducing the fat when there’s almond flour in the mix? Thanks!

  36. Mary Foran

    Hi Shauna,

    I so love your blog and books – than you for doing this!

    I was wondering as to your opinion on how to store gluten-free flour (sorry if I missed it on here somewhere). Is it best, in the cabinet, refrigerator or freezer? And, for how long?

    Thank you,

  37. Cathy

    Hi Shauna,
    I am totally new to gluten free baking and not a world class baker to begin with. I really like your food scale. Can you tell me the brand and where I might find it?


  38. Lex

    I’m slowly starting to figure out this whole gluten free thing but and so far I’ve basically been steering clear of anything baked as I know I’ll have to make it myself as opposed to buying it due to other allergies/dietary restrictions (nuts, milk, eggs, soy, corn & potato being the big ones). All the combinations I’ve seen, either commercially or home-made use either corn or potato flour or starch which leave me out of luck and scratching my head and wondering what to do instead. Seeing the listing that you have provided here has me more excited about being gluten free that I have been since I started. (even more so than when I actually made my first semi-successful loaf of GF bread – last week) Based on the lists you provided I’m thinking that substituting either arrowroot or tapioca flour for the potato starch would make sense but would love some reassurance, or an alternate suggestion before I go forging ahead.

  39. Téo

    Hey Shauna!

    Love that scale…can you please point me towards it? I was pretty sure you’d written about your scale before, but I can’t find it in the archives…

    Thanks very much!


  40. Missy

    Most GF bread recipes I find don’t call for a basic amount of flour. They call for the separate flours. Can you substitute your GF flour mix (by adding all the different flour amounts together) into most GF recipes? Is it the mixture/percentage of the wheat and starches in your mixture that make it work?

  41. Leigh Allen-Chen

    Hey, Shauna…

    Thanks for the great video. Can you tell me the name of the type of container you’re using there for your storage? I love look of it and the awesome size.

  42. emily

    Hi Shauna,

    Wow thanks for this terrific resource! I’ve been using the scale for a while now and will NEVER go back. Question about substituting 140 g of an AP GF mix for 1 cup of flour… I have seen a lot of discrepancy about the weight of wheat flours depending on how they are measured but most common (and what I’ve been using) is 120g/cup for white and 140g/cup for wheat if “properly” measured (ie spoon and level vs. scooped.) Just curious about how you arrived at the 140g/cup of AP, do you find gf recipes need more substance? The geek in me find this all so very fascinating. ; )

  43. renate

    Hi Shauna,

    Thanks for posting this. I live in italy and bought a thermomix, but all the gluten free recipes that come with it are sponsored by the gluten free flour industry. The problem is that those flours are full of chemicals and I didn’t eat chemicals before so I don’t want to start now. It’s reilly weird cause people buy the Thermomix cause they want to create things from scratch, it doesn’t make sense to buy premade chemical flours. So I’m going to experiment with your flour mix, I’m really happy I found it, thanks:))) I have some questions: can I use this flour to make pasta? should i add psyllium husk to make pasta and how much? In general, like for bread recipes, how much psyllium husk should be added?

    thanks in advance, keep up the good work:)))

  44. pat

    Hi. Thanks a lot for your recipe – it’s so great everybody can adjust it to his needs!!! 😀
    I’ve already transfered it onto the Polish ground: 🙂

    I have some additional questions. What about:
    * amaranth flour
    * soy flour (I mean regular one, not kinako flour)
    * nut flour other than you’ve listed, eg.walnut flour
    * sunflower flour
    * pumpkin seed flour
    * lentil flour
    * white bean flour
    Can we use them in the flour mix? Which group do they belong to?

    Would you recommend any links/ebooks to read and learn more about all kinds of flours and their characteristics?

  45. Louise

    I made this flour mix yesterday, and it turned out unpleasantly chalky. I tasted the individual flours, and the millet and sorghum especially tasted chalky. I bought Bob’s Red Mill flours from a local health-food store.

    Did I just get old flours?

  46. Hanan

    Hi Shauna! Thank you for this! Had a question…
    Am I the only one that finds a problem with tapioca? EVERY time I mix it in a cake it turns out horribly gummy with the consistency of goop on the inside though perfectly crisped and brown on the outside! It rises a itty bitty bit but once out of the over for about 2-3 minutes it deflates. HELP!
    Arrowroot works beautifully as does potato starch. What am I doing wrong with the tapioca?
    Thanks in advance!

  47. Azena Correa

    Recently diagnosed with gluten sensitivities and gluten cross sensitivities (to corn, potato, millet, oats, coffee, beans, and rice) I am having such a hard time coming up with recipe ideas. I’ve been dreaming of having pancakes but most of the recipes and flours contain things on my cross-sensitivities list. Can anyone help me please?

  48. Lynnie

    Azena I feel your pain! I have many Allergies as opposed to Intollerances or sensitivites. Thankfully I can have potato but everything else on your list I am allergic to… Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats, Spelt, Millett, Corn, Rice, Beans, Peas & Legumes and everyother Grain/Grass there is. I Use Quinoa Flour which is a seed in the same family as Amaranth and are related to Spinach. They are complete proteins and very good for you. I am in Australia and buy Tasmanian Organically grown Quinoa online then dry roast it to remove the bitter tasting saponins and then Mill it in my Thermomix. I make up a Flour mix of 2 parts Quinoa/Amaranth, 2 parts Potato Starch and 1 part Arrowroot or Tapioca or a mix of both. There are also options of coconut flour and nut and seed meals depending on what you are making. I find the mix above works great in biscuits/cookies but for cakes I would swap out the Arrowroot/Tapioca and try Coconut or Almond. I’m not sure how you would go without Potato but I guess you will just have to play with the flour mixes and recipes and see how you go.

  49. RJ

    Please help… we are very new to gluten/dairy free living – needed to make a change for my son so we are all doing it. However, I am still trying to figure out the baking part of it (loved baking/cooking in our previous life). We are going home for a visit and annual pasty making weekend (cornish pasty – handheld meat pie – steak, potato, onion, rutabaga, suet). The dough recipe is AP Flour, lard and water. What flour or mix would you suggest? This is such a long passed down tradition in our family, I am hoping to continue it being gluten free. Thank you for any suggestions!

  50. jordan

    ! Oh man. I love projects…and this, my friend is a great one. I am considering going gluten free…I’m also reading your book. It’s an adventure I’m excited to experiment with and having you and Chef as guides is, well, it’s awesome. Thank you for sharing your world with us!

  51. Cherie Capps

    I have a question about starches. I can’t eat tuber plants, so that means no potatoes or tapioca. I don’t like using corn because most of it is GMO. What would be you suggest for a good starch combination without these starches. Is it possible to us only white flours as a starch in a flour mix? Thanks.
    So glad a friend told me about your site.

  52. Amy

    Thank you for doing this!! I have been baking allergen-free for years but gluten free is new to me. Thanks so much for taking the time to explain all of this. Details like flavor and texture and moisture can only be found by experimenting. So thanks for saving me some time. With two kids (who have multiple food allergies) I need all the time I can get!

  53. Kimberly

    I have 3 children with Eosinophilic disorders and each has multiple food allergies. We have to avoid nuts/tree nuts, wheat, rice, potato, soy, barley, corn, peas, green beans, eggs, dairy, chicken, beef and shrimp/shellfish. I am having a hard time coming up with a combination of flour mix I can use to make cookies, bread, cakes, etc. Any thoughts or help would be appreciated!!

  54. Jill

    Thank you so much for this. We just went GF for the health of my little guy so the whole family is going GF. I would love to make a flour blend with Almond and Coconut flours. I know they work different but is it still possible to make a blend that can be used for cookies/muffins/cakes with?


  55. Jordyn Jackson (The Hungry Songbird)

    Hi Shauna!

    Your story is so inspiring! I am just starting to research a gluten-free diet, and I plan on coming back to your blog A LOT. 🙂

    I have my own blog called, The Hungry Songbird, and a recipe I made last night was only possible after I read this post on how to make a gluten-free all-purpose flour. Thank you so very much!

    Here’s the recipe for Oven-Fried Chicken {Gluten-Free}…

  56. Russell

    This is wonderful!!! My wife recently realized that she is gluten intolerant and I have been looking into different ways to prepare our favorite foods to be GF. With that said, she is also allergic to potatoes, so every GF product with potato starch (which there are many) are off limits.

    So Shauna, my question to you is… what would be a good substitute for the 300 grams of potato starch in your recipe above to make this a good all purpose GF flour without potato starch. I’m all for experimenting with the other white flour/starches you listed, but if someone already knows of a good mix, I would appreciate it.



  57. Ally

    I’ve been reading for years, first comment now, wheee! I absolutely love this transition into weights and ratios, it’s liberating, empowering. I made a mix using 700g millet, sorghum, and teff (equal proportions) and 300g arrowroot and potato for starches. This is the yummiest blend I’ve ever used for muffins. The muffins have tenderness, structure, flavor, my holy grail mix, but unfortunately is a bust for cookies. I tried making chocolate chip cookies with this mix and it was a fail of epic proportions. They spread like none I’ve ever. seen.

    Do any of you have a successful mix for classic, crispy and chewy chocolate chip cookies? Please share if you do. Please.

  58. Silvia

    I’ve been playing around with baking GF, just for fun. This is an AWESOME resource for making mixes and how textures work and flours work. Thank you!

  59. Brooke Miller

    Hi Shauna,

    I really appreciate your site and your video. I just recently found out I have sensitivities to wheat (not gluten itself), WHITE rice (brown is ok), and soy. I know you really reccomend the Sweet Rice Flour in the all purpose flour recipe. Any recommendations for a next best option??
    Thanks so much,

  60. Lee Torrence

    HI Shauna, I’ve been gluten free for only 4 months. During this time, I discovered that I have a sensitivity to nuts.. When I eat things made of gluten free flours I still feel nauseous and the pain in my muscles comes back for a few days. Do you know where to find gluten free flours that are not prepared in facilities which process nuts (peanuts and tree nuts)? Bob’s is not one of them.
    I’m so enjoying your book! and I found your blog looking for the the flours mentioned above. Loved your video! It’s so nice to find you!

    1. Lex

      I too am having a tough time finding flours that are nut free Lee. I’ve found a brand that does oat flour and another that does coconut that will certify nut free but that is it. I’ve started to grind my own but that is a slow process, at least with the equipment I have right now. If you’ve found anywhere I’d love to hear about it.


  61. Chi Chi

    This is such a great place to start a journey to gluten-free homemade cooking. Thank you for taking the time to break things down for the newly converted.

  62. Jamie Peterson

    I love baking with coconut flour. . . it takes 1/3 the amount of other flours (1/3 cup coconut flour replaces 1 cup other flour). I also do blends of almond and coconut flours (yum!). My favorite gf bakery in Davis, CA uses a couple tricks to make their bread and cakes moist, soft, and springy- they go higher fat (adding almond flour or high fat cocoa powder), & they add gelatin and apple cider vinegar. I’m experimenting with this as I’d love to recreate the breads/rolls I’ve had there! (They use brown rice flour in most things as the base).

  63. Elizabeth

    I have been using a Nutrimill to mill my own GF flour. It will mill any and all of the GF grains including millet, quinoa, rice, chickpeas, etc. In fact, you can weigh out the grains you want to use in your flour mix and then mill them together and your flour mix is done! I also love the fact that I can choose how fine or coarse I want the flour to be.
    When I mill the grains, I put them in 1 gallon jars and label them. For most things, I use the finest grind which makes all my baked goods light and fluffy. The mill pays for itself in no time.

    1. shauna

      We love flour mills too! We have a Blendtec, which we love. And like you, we weigh out all the grains we’ll be using, mix them up, and mill them that way. Instant flour mix!

  64. kate

    first – i love your blog. it has been very helpful for me, as my son was intolerant of wheat ‘out of the gate’ so to speak. i really appreciate the explanations with your recipes enabling one to experiment! i have a question about the flour mix, which is to do with the whole grain flours you have listed. my understanding is that several of those are in the wheat family (Poaceae) millet, oats, teff, corn and sorghum. do these not have gluten, or is there something in the whole grain processing that allows for tolerance? if you have any reference or insight to this, i would love to hear it!

    1. shauna

      Kate, those are gluten-free flours! They might be in the same family but they are widely recognized and labeled as gluten-free.

  65. Chalulu


    If your cookies are barely making it to your mouth, try either some Xanthan about 1/4 tsp. or 1/2tsp. You can also try Guar Gum but add equal parts Xanthan and Guar Gum. For example 1/2 tsp guar 1/2 tsp Xanthan to one cup of flour.
    I like coconut flour because it holds my cookies together a little better as well.
    It definitely is an art to finding the right flour combo’s and guar and Xanthan combo to support these gluten free recipes. I had many failures and much mony down the garbage disposal due to not enough of one flour and not enough guar gum, not enough Xanthan. It is trial and error. But don’t quit, you will find the right balance.
    You would not believe how many wheat eating friends eat my gluten free cookies and tell me they are a cookie lovers delight.
    Keep me posted on all your successes in the kitchen.

  66. Chalulu

    Never heard that psyllium was a binder in gluten free foods. We is psyllium in horses bran mash to help with their digestive. Horses need a lot of fiber and in humans as well psyllium is a great source of fiber. I have to research this, interesting?

  67. Jonette

    I am new to gluten free baking and several weeks ago I made an AP flour mix from a recipe that, I swear, was from your site, but now can’t seem to locate. It was a list of flours and a list of starches and a simple instruction to use 700grams (?) from one column and 300 grams (?) from the other. The problem is I can’t remember exactly if that ratio is right and I can’t seem to find it again!

    I seriously think I was dreaming. That I made it up in my imagination?

    If it was truly from your blog, could you direct me to it? Everything I have made thus far has been wonderful and I want to keep at the baking/ discovering!

    Thank you.

  68. Ann Cormier

    We loved this recipe! My 15 year old daughter made it today. My 18 year old daughter cannot eat potato with grain or rice, so I’m wondering what to substitute the potato starch with. Would an equal amount of tapioca flour work? I also made enough of the flour mix to have on hand for the next baking project to make it speedier. Great idea!

  69. Ilana

    Thanks for the GF flour mix video! It would be really helpful if, on this page, you linked to some of your baked good recipes that actually call for this particular flour mix. While I love to bake, I don’t have much time or patience for the trial and error that comes along with it. Now that I have the mix, I’d love to try it out with one of your tried and true recipes! Many thanks!

  70. Irina

    What a great website!!! I laughed and cried while reading your story. Thank you so much for sharing.
    I want to switch to GF and sugar-free lifestyle because I know it’s the right way to eat healthy, this is all new to me so I’m looking for info. I just went to a store yesterday and bought many different kinds of GF flours and now I want to mix them properly to make breads in my new shiny bread maker. Could you categorize the flours I have (that aren’t on your list) so I can make AP flour with the correct ratios?
    Spelt flour
    Kamut flour
    Also, is tapioca flour and tapioca starch the same thing?
    White rice flour – can I just mill any white rice grains to make it?
    Thank you once again! I have your website in my favorites now 🙂

    1. shauna

      Hey Irina, spelt and kamut both have gluten, so don’t use those. Amaranth is a whole grain. Tapioca flour and tapioca starch are the same. White rice flour is long-grain rice made into flour.

  71. Silvia

    My question is most of my receipes are in grams due to German back ground. How does the 140 gram gf flour for 1 cup all purpose flour work? If I need 500 grams of regular flour verses gf flour? This is all new to me. I plan on trying to make some Christmas cookies and stohlen gluten free this year, would appreciate any advice I can get.

  72. Ell

    Hello there!
    So I want to make a white flour gf flour mix. I wanna make cinnamon rolls (and basicly all other baked goods) that my gluten-loving family would tolerate. Also Im allergic to all the Whole grain flours except for rice and sorghum. So I’m not sure what to do..
    Sorry if this is a stupid/vague question or I missed something u said earlier.

  73. Denise

    I used this blend with brown rice flour & millet flour as the whole grains in a bar cookie recipe (no xanthan gum) and couldn’t believe how good they came out…I would not have believed they were gluten free had I not made them myself. Thank you for bringing joy back baking!

  74. Tanya Beard

    I pretty much just love you. My daughter and I are doing our end of year “Grateful Fors” today, and so I thought to let you know our family is grateful for you and what you do.

  75. Robert Nesbitt

    Shauna, Where does HEMP flour fall into here? I would think it is a grain, high protein.
    Also would you happen to know how many grams of hemp flour equals one cup?

    I saw Hemp Protein Flour in the store from Bob’s Red Mill bought it to try, but would like some insight to its usage/ratio, how it affects taste and what are the characteristics, IE like coconut flour (absorbs liquid) or almond flour (high fat) etc. Please provide any other comments…Thanks!

  76. ash

    If I wanted to make an all purpose flour mix with brown rice flour, sorghum flour, tapioca starch and 1 high fiber flour, what amounts would that be? I’m thinking chickpea flour for the high fiber. No nut or coconut flours.

  77. Ann

    What if you’re also allergic to potato and rice? How can one make an all purpose flour mix then?

  78. Peggy

    I took a certification class on gluten-free baking during culinary school and made two different types of all purpose flour:

    6 cups brown rice flour
    2 cups potato starch
    1 cup tapioca flour

    3 cups rice flour
    3 cups tapioca flour
    3 cups cornstarch
    3 tablespoons potato flour

    Both flours work perfectly as a replacement for regular flour in almost every application I’ve used them. Also, I’m sure this is a widely known fact, but adding a little bit of Xanthan Gum to each of the flour bases helps get that reaction and chewiness that normal gluten provides =)

    1. Lex

      Peggy, would substituting the cornstarch for more tapioca work in your second recipe? And how about for the potato starch as well? I’m allergic to corn, potato and gluten (among several other things) and am desperately trying to find a recipe I can try but am getting sick of trial and errors that aren’t working out.


  79. Anna K.

    Thanks for the video! :-)~~ about the xantham gum…you don’t absolutely need it for general baking mixes, cookies, pancakes, breads? I have been using it, but wondered if it is always neccesary.

    I don’t like putting it in!

      1. Anna K.

        Oh I’m glad to hear that! 🙂 Thanks so much! I look forward to trying out more of your recipes!
        Anna K.

  80. Robin

    I’m not sure if you mill your own flour, but you seem to be very knowledgeable about the whole gluten free flour subject. I am going to start milling my own flour and found a bulk package of “tapioca granules large pearl” and wondered if you could tell me if this is suitable for tapioca flour? I’ve read so many articles on tapioca but haven’t really found anything that answers this particular question. Thank you so much in advance for any information you may have to share.

  81. Darcie

    I don’t see amaranth in your list of whole grain flours. I think it would perform similarly to quinoa, but perhaps without the same flavour issue (never tried the quinoa myself).

  82. Cherie

    Thanks so much. Very helpful. I threw in what I had and my lemon biscuits are now being eaten by the boy who doesn’t like my other cookies.

  83. Skylar

    Hello! Thank you so much for your helpful video!
    I have a grain mill here at home and have been grinding things like
    kamut, spelt and oats under the impression that I was only allergic to WHEAT not GLUTEN. . . Well after spending three or four months of feel awful, I finally discovered that, indeed I am sensitive to GLUTEN. I have the advantage of grinding anything I want, so I was very pleased to know that millet is now a contender.
    Thank you so so much! Great video!

  84. Becca

    Thank you so much for this post and your website! I love to bake and recently decided to go gluten free. I’ve started to feel as though I need to store or sell all my beloved baking supplies (dramatic I know) because it just wouldn’t be the same anymore. I’ve felt limited. I now feel empowered!!! I feel as though I now have way more options and that before I was gluten free I was actually stuck in the only gluten world. Instead of being kept from something I look at it as being free of something limiting. I’m now freed from the bonds of gluten instead of being gluten free! Thanks… I think that is a much better way of looking at it!

  85. nac

    HI ..hope you are able to help me. I’m suspecting that we have illness in the family due to extremely high fiber diet…probably way over 100 per day and i just found out 30 would be beneficial. Been making homemade bread for 6 yrs..using 25% white , 25% bread, 25 % whole wheat, 25 % a mix of 8 flours…millet, brown rice, barley, buckwheat, corn,oat, spelt and kamut…on top of which we eat oats every day and muffins made from the same flour.
    i would like to try a new recipe using 60% white bread flour and maybe 40 % of 4 of the whole grain flours mixed. maybe brown rice, buckwheat, millet and oat. I’m not sure if this would still be too high fiber or okay. thanks

  86. Deb

    Hi, I have been following your site for awhile and used some of your recipes which are great! Every time I think I ‘got’ it: I don’t. There is so much information and it can be confusing, I have gotten tons of flours and I am trying your mixtures. I got some northern beans (navy) and decided to try and pulverize them into worked!! Then I tried to figure out what to do with it, I found some info which if you have absorption problems it is better for you to use the bean flours.
    I appreciate your recipes, and info…I will be learning forever!!! 😉
    The squirrels and birds like my not so good breads, it seems like they are too dry. Do you have any suggestions?
    Thank you so much

  87. Isabel

    Hello there!
    I am so excited to have found your website! I was wondering if you were on Pinterest. My friends are avid Pinterest users. I just know they would love you too!!

  88. Kitty

    Thanks Shauna! I just found this and it’s made my day- I’ve been struggling to find how to mix my own flours and get the right all purpose balance since I stopped being able to process corn, oats and gums, with celiacs and no soy products either. You’re the best!

  89. Penny

    I made the all-pupose flour but instead of millet used teff… my muffins did not stay together..
    did I need to add something else??????

  90. N

    I’m allergic to potato. So going gluten free on doctor’s orders has been quite a challenge. I certainly can’t simply buy a bag off the shelf… But I’m completely new to this so what is the best replacement for it to create my own all purpose mix?

Comments are closed