gluten-free bread

You know, it’s said that it takes 10,000 hours of practicing a craft, over and over again, until you can expect to master it.

If that’s true, then I’m nothing but a humble apprentice at making gluten-free bread. And frankly, I’m fine with that. I learn so much every time I bake. I can’t wait to taste the loaves I make ten years from now.

However, with all the failed loaves and rolls that rose, I’ve learned something. Every single time.

Today, I want to talk a little about what I have learned. And I want to hear what you have learned too.

This one took me two or three years to learn:

gluten-free bread dough doesn’t look like gluten dough.

If you were making gluten-free bread for the first time, and you followed the recipe, and  you looked down in the mixer to see this, what would you think?

Probably something like this: this can’t be right. I’m adding more flour.

Do that and what happens? Sawdust. Or more likely, that loaf of bread so hard and dry you could hit any burglar in the head with it and knock him out.

We don’t want that.

Instead, you let that dough stay as it is. There’s something a little mysterious about gluten-free dough. Let the dough when you are done mixing it look like this.

After two hours, it will look like….


As the dough rises, it grows tighter and drier and more pliable. In fact, by the time it is done rising, that dough feels like….bread dough.

Just knowing this will make your gluten-free bread better than mine was for the first three years of baking.

As I’ve written about before, I’ve recently cut out xanthan and guar gum from my diet. I feel better. That’s enough for me.

Most gluten-free baked goods don’t need them, it turns out. Bread, however, needs a little something.

Some of you have written to ask: “I made your bread or pizza or cracker recipe and just left out the gums. The dough was too wet. Was it really just that one ingredient?” Yes. Yes it was. Xanthan and guar gums are hydrocolloids, which means they mix with water and swell. They bind dough together in a way that makes them mighty alluring. Without them, the dough as written won’t work.

Does that mean a life without bread if you live without the gums?

Of course not. Do you think that little of my stubborn nature?

You just need a little flaxseed or chia seed.

If anyone out there knows the science of why they work, I’d be happy to hear. I think it’s something about the fiber. And given the way they react in boiling water — melting into a sticky gel-like substance — I have a feeling these are natural hydrocolloids too. Right now, all I know is they work.

These rolls were made with whole-grain flours, a bit of starch, yeast, sugar, water, and flaxseed. See that crust? The insides are soft and chewy.

Here’s my favorite discovery: gluten-free bread without the gums? It has the texture of bread.

You know how gluten-free bread, no matter how good, has a little of the texture of cornbread? I always thought it was the lack of gluten. Turns out it was the gums.

Gluten-free bread made with flaxseed or chia seed or a combination of the two looks and feels more like bread than anything I have eaten in almost six years.

I can’t wait to see what the next six years bring.

What have you learned about baking gluten-free bread? Share your insights with us here!

This is the recipe for the multi-grain bread I developed for Michael Ruhlman’s site. I’ve been working with it since then, and I’ve made a few tiny changes. No matter how many times I read that you can throw active dry yeast into the dough like a flour, I really do see a difference when I rise it in warm water and a bit of sugar first. So I’ve done that here.

Also, I’ve given a slightly broader range of the amount of water to use. Bread is a fickle beast, a living organism, a wonderful challenge. The humidity in your area, the heat of your kitchen, the altitude at which you live — they all affect the dough. If you switch any of these flours out with another one, the dough will be slightly different, even if it’s the same weight. (The fat in the almond flour makes this a different dough than if you use brown rice flour, for example.) Listen to this from Rose Levy Berenbaum’s book, The Bread Bible: “Using different types of flour will also make significant changes in both the flavor and texture of the bread….If you change the balance of different types of flours, the water amount will also need to be changed slightly.” (And that’s with gluten flour!)

So in that last step, after you have added the eggs and apple cider vinegar, add the water in little splashes. Keep mixing before you add more. You are looking for the dough to appear the way it does in that second photograph up there. Forget the measurements at that point. Go by your instincts.

If you cannot tolerate the goat’s milk powder, you can leave it out and simply add 30 more grams of the buckwheat flour. A little milk powder adds some good flavor and helps to brown the crust. But you don’t need it for the bread. (You can also use regular milk powder, if you want.) Rose Levy Berenbaum suggests using the powdered milk because it has been heated to a high-enough temperature to eliminate the enzyme in milk that slows down yeast production. (There’s a lot to learn about bread.)

Also, if you cannot tolerate the eggs, add the following in their place: 2 teaspoons baking powder, 1/2 teaspoon baking soda, and 2 ounces apple cider vinegar. Mix them and add them quickly to the dough. (The next-to-last photograph up there is the bread made without milk or dairy.)

However, if you can tolerate eggs, the boule in the top photograph has a simple egg wash brushed on it: 1 egg plus a splash of water. Try that for a warm brown crust.

Finally, here’s another thing I know about gluten-free bread. It works best in rolls or small boules instead of giant loaves. Who’s going to turn down warm bread rolls?

15 grams ground flaxseed meal
15 grams ground chia seeds
60 grams boiling-hot water

1 ½ teaspoons active dry yeast
1 tablespoon sugar
230 grams (1 cup) water, divided in half

100 grams gluten-free oat flour (make sure it’s certified gluten-free)
100 grams almond flour (make sure it’s blanched almond flour, finely ground)
100 grams teff flour
85 grams potato starch
85 grams arrowroot powder
70 grams buckwheat flour
30 grams milk powder
2 teaspoons kosher salt

2 large eggs
2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar

Making the flax-chia slurry. Mix the flaxseed and chia seeds together. Pour in the boiling-hot water. Whisk, quickly, until the seeds have formed a thick, viscous slurry. Set aside to cool down.

Rising the yeast. Whisk together the yeast, sugar, and 115 grams (1/2 cup) water heated to 110°. Set aside the yeasty water in a warm place until it has doubled in volume, about 8 to 15 minutes.

Combining the dry ingredients. In the bowl of a stand mixer, combine the oat flour, almond flour, teff flour, potato starch, arrowroot powder, and buckwheat flour in a large bowl. Whisk them together to incorporate them together and aerate. Add the milk powder and salt. Whisk to combine.

Finishing the dough. In a small bowl, whisk the eggs and apple cider vinegar together. Pour this into the mixing bowl, along with the flax-chia slurry and yeasty water. Mix well. Warm the remaining water up to 110° and add part of the water, slowly, until the dough looks like it does in the second photograph above. (You may use anywhere from 1/4 cup to the entire 1/2 cup. The heat and humidity of your house, as well as the flours you use for this bread, will change the dough slightly.)

The dough will be wet and tacky. Don’t worry. That’s the texture you want. You will be tempted to add more flour, since you are thinking of gluten bread. Do not add flour.

Instead, scrape the dough into a large, oiled bowl. Cover with plastic wrap and let it rise for 2 hours. You won’t have as much of a rise as with gluten bread. However, over those 2 hours, the dough will become more elastic and a little drier.

Baking the bread. Preheat the oven to 450°. If you have a pizza stone, put it in the oven now.

The dough will still be a bit tacky to the touch. If you want to avoid bread dough sticking to your hands, wet them with just a bit of water. Cut the dough in half to form 2 small boules or into 8 balls for rolls. (If you still have the scale on the counter, form 3-ounce balls.) Let the boules/rolls rest and proof further as the oven preheats.

Put the boules or rolls directly onto the pizza stone. (If you don’t have one, use a baking sheet with parchment paper.) Bake until the outside of the rolls are crusty, the bottom has a good hollow thump when tapped, and the internal temperature has reached at least 180°. Allow them to cool.


Makes 2 small boules or 8 rolls.


211 comments on “gluten-free bread

  1. Chihiro

    This was so informative, thank you. I can eat gluten, but find so many more people who are avoiding it for various reasons. It’s also so much more interesting to experiment with different flours! I can’t wait to try this to see how the almond and buckwheat taste in a bread roll.

  2. jen @ the baked life

    Looks amazing Shauna!

    I love winter for the sole purpose of bread making. I would love to start making GF bread so I can share them with my sister, and possibly myself. Going later in the month for a biopsy to test for gluten allergy/celiac. :S

  3. Gretchen O'Byrne

    I am SO glad you posted this today as I was really feeling down from my so many failed attempts. Ok…not complete failures but not successes either. I keep getting really dense bread. The baking is going great. Nice fluffy, light muffins, cakes, etc. Even tried a recipe from a different gluten free cookbook and got a nice raisin cinnamon bread but still struggling with just a basic sandwich, bun or pizza recipe. I think part of my problem is getting it to rise. My fabulously drafty house is a problem so I keep experimenting with finding a constantly warm space for the dough to rise that will not take 5 hours. Anyway…going to try again as you continue to inspire me and get me out of my funk. I so appreciate your “let’s see what happens!” attitude.


    1. Penny

      I had trouble with the rise of the gluten free doughs too–also have a drafty home. I just recently found that if I let it rise in a breadmaker, it rises much better- I think because it’s insulated and sealed closed, it allows the warmth it needs

      1. Ally

        Have you tried putting a wet tea towel in the microwave, heating the towel, then putting the bread in it’s container (bowl or whatever) on top of the towel and shutting the door? Moisture and heat. It works for me. If it’s not rising great I will sometimes pull the bread out and then heat the towel up again and put the bread back in. It works wonders.

      2. Kendra

        I put my bread in the microwave to rise with a steamy cup of water sitting by it’s side. I don’t turn on the microwave, of course. I just use it’s tight quarters to provide a nice warm place for the bread to rise. It works like a charm, if my water temp was just right, at 110 – 111 degrees when I soaked my yeast in it.

    2. Irvin

      When I need the dough to rise faster, I will put a pizza stone on the floor of the oven and turn it on to 350?F for about five-ten minutes. Then turn it off and make the bread dough. By the time the bread dough is done, the oven has cooled slightly, but the pizza stone retains it’s heat fairly well. I pop the bowl of dough in the oven and let the residual heat from the stone warm up the dough.

      Just be sure to take the dough out of the oven before your preheat to bake the bread!

      If you don’t have a pizza stone, I’ve been told a bowl of hot/near boiling water in the oven works too. You just have to refresh the water now and then.

      Either way the oven should help protect the dough from you drafty house!

    3. Leslie


      One way I’ve found that makes the dough rise more easily is to place the dough in an oiled bowl and put it in the oven, but *don’t* turn the oven on. Instead, add a pan with sides (like a decent-sized rectagular cake pan) on the rack below the dough and fill it with boiled water from a tea kettle, then shut the oven door. The heat and steam help the dough to rise.


    4. Anastasia

      Would you share the recipe for raisin cinnamon bread you talked about? I’ve been craving some yummy cinnamon bread…thanks!

    5. c

      Try using your oven as a Proofer. Postion your rack so there is enough room to stick a pot on the bottom. Preheat oven at 400 for 1 min shut oven off. Put a pot of boiling water on the bottom and the bread on the rack. Let it rise for an 1hr. If you have a oven thermometer your oven should be between 100 and 110 degrees. My oven I have to preheat for 2 mins. Every oven is different so play around. Hope this helps to get your GF bread to rise :-)

  4. Edwina

    How weird and wonderful to have found you. I just posted about gluten free myself today. I am only just starting out on my journey, and finding you will definitely make my life easier.
    Thank you.

  5. Cookie

    I am SO glad you posted this because I have been wondering how to make GF bread without the gums after reading your posts on how you don’t need or want them any more. THANK YOU!

  6. Kelly

    Hi Shauna! Is there a flour that you would recommend substituting for almond flour? I have almond allergies and I’m hunting for a similarly textured flour to try in there.

    Thanks! These look amazing!

      1. Maricella

        Hazelnut flour works as a substitute for the sweet baked goods I make. The texture and nutrient composition seems similar … more so than for pecans/walnuts/cashews/etc. I too have to avoid almond, but I love hazelnuts. It sometimes means an extra trip to a health food store to find it, or just grinding the nuts myself.

        Never tried it in bread though.

        1. Leanne

          I am thoroughly enjoying coconut flour, especially in cookies and sweeter items. Perhaps you could try that.

  7. Chef Froggie

    I have tried for months to make successful GF bread. And I have failed every single time. Sometimes they’ve been edible, other times they’ve just been nasty, and my latest try was hard dry and yeasty. So a HUGE thanks for sharing your insight here…. now I can’t wait to get back in the kitchen and try again. The biggest thing I need to remember now, is to make the dough more moist than regular gluten bread. It just is weird to not have to knead the dough like gluten bread, but I’ll get over that instinct someday. :)

  8. Samantha Pridgen

    Fantastic! I just tried my first, out of Almond flour. It was yummy, but not big enough! So, my question to you is, What do you think of Arrowroot as a thickener?

  9. Nina

    Having watched you develop this all along I must say that you are just like your dough- you always rise to the occasion and you are darn tasty. Thanks for your stick-to-itiveness, my friend!

  10. Fiona

    My main experience with GF bread dough is that I just can’t get it to rise much and have very solid loaves of bread as a result. Never had that problem with gluten doughs! As a result I’ve abandoned bread-making for the time-being. I will try again when I’ve mustered enough energy and worked out where to get all the ingredients in Germany (just arrived!).

  11. Vicky

    If you make the bread without eggs do you add an additional 2ounces of vinegar to the vinegar in the recipe? How may tablespoons in total? I make a lovely eggless gluten free chocolate cake and that only uses bicarb and vinegar as a raising agent – 1 teaspoon of each.

  12. Val

    This is what I’ve learned– left over from my days as a gluten-y bread baker. I do an extra slow fermentation of my gf loaves to help develop more complex flavor. I start in the morning with a 12 hour ‘soaker’ (just the protein flours and water, a technique from Bread Baker’s Apprentice that helps hydrate the flours and liberate the sugars). Before bed I add all the dry yeast. The next morning when I get up, I add the remaining ingredients and bake. Sometimes I slow it even further by putting my sponge (soaker plus yeast) in the fridge overnight and waiting until the next evening to bake off. This makes tasty semi-sour loaves and makes you really feel like an artisan baker ;).
    I use a different recipe than yours above (twealed and adjusted over the years) but yours will work for a slow ferment too, just have to figure out the original soaker/sponge ratios. Thanks for all you do and share, it inspires!

    1. Joelle

      I know this is an old post, but I too am very curious about your method! I’d love to incorporate soaking into this process! Thanks in advance.

    2. Sarah G

      I third the request for the soaker recipe, please! I just baked Shauna’s rolls, and they were a big hit. I feel so lucky to have her guidance as I learn to bake GF for my newly-diagnosed Celiac husband.

  13. Meredith Carr

    Hi there! I am new to your blog and loving it!! This is a great post – I was wondering, where do you find your ingredients? I’ve heard good things about Bob’s Red Mill products–would you recommend his flours, yeast, etc.?

    Thanks again for your fantastic blog!


    1. Katharine null Kimbriel

      Meredith —

      You might be surprised at how many places you can find GF flours now — it’s getting easier to find things. Your major grocery may carry some of them, in a special area or on the bottom or top shelf with other flours. I’ve used a lot of Bob’s Red Mill products, and so far every one I have tried has been a quality item. I haven’t tried their almond flour because I have a Whole Foods nearby and they sell theirs for much less, and I’m cash trapped right now. But I have been pleased with Bob’s products.

      I haven’t tried their yeast, I haven’t seen it. We have Red Star and Fleishman’s (sp?) and both have worked well — look for the words gluten-free on the packet, not all F. are gluten-free.

      Good luck! Welcome to the party!

  14. Sharon Bowler

    this looks wonderful Shauna, thanks for all your work!

    We are new to all this and really trying to learn as quickly as possible. Where do you get your flours and other ingredients? I have visited PCC and Whole Foods. I found several things there, but not others. I know some online merchants have a wide variety, but I don’t know which are best.

    I’d love to have any advise about this that you or your more experienced readers can share.

    1. dilhari

      i made gluten free bread several times they dont come fluffy at all
      they are so hard and no crust and looks like cake but not soft like cake
      i cant even cut it like bread

  15. Karla

    Just finished the last bit of clafoutis and can’t wait to try your bread. We have a nut allergy in the house and possibly oat intolerance. What do you suggest for substitutions for those ingredients? Thank you.

  16. Nancy

    I’m really excited about this. Honestly. Trying to bake has amounted to..well, me not doing it at all. Odd textures, gummy, crumbly, wad up in your mouth so that you look and sound like the cat when he tries to eat tweety bird. Not to mention the fits of frustrated rage my 4 year old has when his sandwich crumbles in his fingers. I’m looking forward to trying this out. Thank you for your years of work.

  17. Irvin

    I believe a hydrocolloid technically is a substance that is dispersed evenly throughout water. In laymen’s terms is a substance that forms a gel in contact with water. So, in that matter, chia seed and flax meal are both probably naturally occurring hydrocolloid.

    I’ve been wanting to play with psyllium husk as well, which apparently has the same properties. Dan Lepard has a gluten free bread recipe that uses it, but I discovered it few years ago when I doing a lot of vegan baking as an egg substitute. Haven’t really played with it much though.

    I meant to show it to you when I was up there baking with you but there’s a creative common cookbook called Hydrocolloid Recipes. It lists a number of hydrocolloids that you could play with. Most are gums or other strange chemicals, as the cookbook is geared toward molecular gastronomy geeks, but it might be a good reference point as it does talk about different properties of each hydrocolloid and tips on how to use them. Though sadly chia seeds, flax meal, and psyllium husk is not included. is the link

    1. Tara

      I’ve had Dan Lepard’s gluten-free bread recipe bookmarked for a while, too, mostly because I’m intrigued by the psyllium husk component. I’ve never seen it show up in other recipes, though, so I don’t know how many have followed his lead. Also, I’ve never seen plain psyllium husk powder at my natural foods co-op, just fruit-flavored supplements, and hate having to special order things. Somehow, I don’t think the berry flavor is what Mr. Lepard was calling for!

      From the tiny bit of online searching I’ve done since reading this post, and thinking about the qualities of flax, chia, and psyllium, I’ve found that they all contain higher-than-normal concentrations of mucilage (from Wikipedia: “a thick, gluey substance produced by most plants . . . thought to aid in water storage . . . and to act as a membrane thickener”), which makes me think that they’re natural sources of the properties we’ve been using xanthan & guar gums for! Maybe not technically, chemically hydrocolloids, but better since they’re naturally-derived & have other health benefits. Looks like oat bran also has high hydrocolloid content (see this page: )

      Also, I just read that xanthan is usually derived from corn, soy, or WHEAT – I had always assumed it was just corn-derived! This could also explain people having celiac-like reactions to xanthan, since trace amounts of gluten have been found in wheat-derived xanthan gum. Gah.

      So much to think about! Thank you, Shauna, for this discussion!

  18. Maz Pennington

    I’m quite sure your recipes work well, because you look like you care, but also… You write very well. I hope you’re glad to hear that, because I think it matters. Nice style. x

  19. Tara

    Here’s a question for you, Shauna: how long does your oven take to preheat? Or how long does ANY normal oven take? Mine is a fabulously old behemoth that takes about an hour to get to 350, and even longer for 450, so to do a second rise while waiting for it to preheat might be too long. How long would you estimate those rolls/boules rest for?


  20. Anna

    Great post! That dark loaf is so beautiful.
    Lately I’ve been successfully making sourdough gluten-free breads. I started out by learning how to make gf sourdough starters from Sharon Kane at the
    After lots of practice with basic pancakes and muffins, I recently tried converting the crusty boule recipe that you link to on your blog. I’ve made it successfully twice now, with no added commercial yeast whatsoever. It has a mildly sour, complex flavor, with comparable rise to yeasted dough. It has a long rising/fermenting period like Val, above, mentioned. Important for me, it seems to be easily digestible.
    Thanks again,

    1. Angie

      Is it possible to get the recipe for the crusty boule you refer to here without commercial yeast? How much sourdough starter do you use in place of the commercial yeast? Do you change anything else in the recipe?

      1. Sarah G

        Me, too! Me, too! I just made Shauna’s rolls last night, and they were delicious, but I can’t eat too much yeast without my face breaking out in rosacea… Would LOVE to cook GF for my celiac husband AND yeast-free for me.

  21. J3nn (Jenn's Menu and Lifestyle Blog)

    Thank you so much for sharing your gluten-free bread wisdom! Those rolls look amazing. It’s so good to know that (a) you can enjoy delicious gluten-free bread and (b) even with gums! I make grain-free crackers in my food dehydrator with chia + flax seed, but I let the doughy mixture sit for a bit and it gets very gummy with just water. Love chia and flax, they’re so good for you, too! Very important that the flax seeds are ground to get the most benefits from them. I have 3 bags of Bob’s Red Mill gold flax seed, I’d love to try your bread recipe.

    Thanks again!

  22. Trish

    I have reread the recipe several times and I just need to clarify…are you adding the yeast mixture at the same time as the egg/vinegar and the flax/chia slurry? I made the original recipe and it didn’t rise (I think proofing as you are doing here is a better way of doing it). The inside of the rolls were wonderful but the outside was very hard. I’m ready to try this again. Thanks for all your work.

  23. Maggie

    Yum! Can’t wait to try this. Thanks for the egg-free variation Shauna – and for the “omit the goat’s milk powder” for us dairy-free’ers! I LOVE baking without the gums now.

  24. Karen

    I would love suggests to substitute for the Oat flour. My husband was just diagnosed and his team recommends avoiding oats for a least a year.

    1. Cashie

      I would try rice flour, brown rice flour or sorghum. As long as the weight ratio matches what you’re substituting, it won’t make a big difference.

  25. Kirsten

    It looks SO good, I can’t wait to try it but I have a problem. I’ve tried as hard as possible but I cannot source any teff flour in Australia – what would be the best substitute?

    1. Ann

      Kirsten I’ve been searching for teff flour in Australia also – still searching.
      I do know that in Western Australia they grow it as a stock feed, but have never been able to speak with anyone there. Shauna tells us that teff flour has a slightly glutinous feel to it – sounds ideal for bread-y type things. Will keep searching.

      1. Kirsten

        Ann, I even found an African Website that used to sell it but have told me they actually imported it and that with all the unrest in the world at the moment it’s impossible to get! I may ask them if they have considered importing from the US…… What will you substitute for it in this bread recipe?

    2. Katharine Eliska Kimbriel

      Have you checked to see if can get it to you? Teff is a lovely flour, and if you cannot get the flour, get the grains and try it as porridge! It is awesome. You might be able to grind it in something like a spice grinder — as a lot of you probably already know, teff means “lost” in one of the northern African languages, because the grains when dropped disappear! I can get the flour so have not tried grinding.

        1. Eimear O'Connell

          No teff flour in New Zealand either! Also haven’t been able to find sorghum flour – although I have found mueslis that have a sort of puffed sorghum grain in… so it must exist. I’m dying to try these two as have read so much about them, might have to do a bit of investigating on my next trip home to Europe.

        2. andrew

          A fantastic source for a comprehensive selection of gluten-free starches and flours (and I might add at very reasonable prices) is: Shahji’s Royal Masala, 137 Marua Road, Ellerslie, Auckland. The shop owner is very knowledgable about gluten-free products and baking.

    3. Raelene

      I am in Tasmania, and also can’t get it here. However, I was recently in Byron Bay and found it at the “Green Garage”, so I bought some home with me. Perhaps they would ship it to you. So apparently it CAN be shipped to Australia…

      1. Jodie

        I realise these are old posts but in case anyone checks back, I figured I’d post. I’ve recently had to start baking GF as my ten year old son developed a severe intolerance to anything gluten (and for good measure, dairy too). I’m in Western Australia and found sorghum flour marketed as Juwar flour in an Indian grocery store for only $3.50 a kilo…teff flour was there too at around the same price. I was sincerely excited!
        That’s where I’ll be shopping from now on! =)

  26. Lori

    Awesome post – I have allergies to flax, almond flour and milk powder

    Can I substitute more chia seed for the flax?

    What flour could I substitute for almond flour?

    Milk powder – could I substitute rice milk powder?

    God bless, be well ^..^

  27. Christina

    Another great benefit with chia seeds is that they are considered a “super food”!
    “Chia seeds are the definitive hydrophilic colloid for the 21 century diet. Hydrophilic colloids, (a watery, gelatinous, glue-like substance) form the underlying elements of all living cells.”, says one site on chia seeds.

    If you are not able to eat egg, you can take ground flaxseed or chia seed mixed with water and make an egg substitute also! I am not sure how well it will brown the top though. Could a little olive oil do the trick?

    Another great benefit is that these things are less expensive and messy than xantham gum also, so yeah.

    Thanks for the awesome post!

  28. Tracy

    I never run home and try out anything, I always wait until I feel like it. I felt like it. I felt like it as soon as I saw this post. This was great and I can’t wait to do it again and make rolls out of it.

    I substituted sorghum flour for almond flour, and I think next time I’m going to reduce the vinegar by one tablespoon, it came through pretty forcefully. The bread was so incredibly crusty I wanted to tuck in with a huge vat of seasoned olive oil.

  29. Dia

    Like Tracy, I want to try this NOW!!
    My son-in law’s a runner, & has been drinking ‘chia fresca’ as a sports drink for awhile now – T Chia seeds, T lemon or lime juice, some honey or Maple Syrup, in a cup of water. Inspired by the Talamahara Indians from Mexico, who used this to run great distances! Their family is also GF, this is a great tip!
    I have also used chia/flax blend – mostly as an egg replacement, but good thought that it also helps in place of the gums! So double duty here.
    The comments are so interesting – nice to think about a GF adaption for one of my past favorite Tasahara Bread Book recipes t- sourdough raisin rolls, with fermented raisins (soak in cider or water for a few days, while you’re starting your sour-dough starter).
    That recipe had the formed ‘rolls’ rise overnight, then bake in AM – I would let sponge sit overnight, then form the rolls ~ an hour before baking!
    I’ve heard suggestions for using carob in place of the gums – I like the taste & natural sweetness, would work well in some recipes!

  30. Trisha

    You are a genius! My son is allergic to corn which most gums are made from. So replacing the gums with the flaxseed slurry is well, genius!!

  31. Heather

    What was the reply to “Kelly @ 18 Hour Kitchen March 1” question of the approximations for grams into cups?

    1. shauna

      Heather (and Kelly), I don’t give cup approximations. Each flour has such a radically different weight that I want to make sure you are successful. If you sub another flour in by cups for one that you cannot eat, your bread may not work. A kitchen scale is inexpensive. You’ll never go back, once you start baking by weight.

  32. Joan

    Hello, I’ve been enjoying your posts about eliminating the gums… I’m looking for a recipe to make in my breadmaker. I know that making bread the traditional way is probably better and does not take that much time, however, there are steps to follow at various times which means I must be home then and that’s not always possible. So I love the convenience of a bread machine. Have you tried this recipe in a breadmachine? Do you have any rule of thumb for converting recipes to make them suitable for the breadmachine? I could of course just try this recipe in my breadmachine but I thought I would ask first. Thanks

    1. Joan

      Ok, I made the bread in my breadmachine. The best part was that there was NO aftertaste. I’ve been wondering for a few months what that bitter aftertaste was and could never put my finger on it. I made three things today based on your recent posts: pancakes, banana muffins, and this bread. None of them have the aftertaste because none of them have the gums. This is GREAT, thank you so much for your food science. The banana muffins were the best and most closely resembled a wheat-based recipe. In fact, I’m not sure you could tell the difference. You are right, it MUST be the gums that give that grainy texture.
      I found the bread and pancakes on the heavy side so I added some white rice flour to the banana muffins. They were fluffy yet nutritious. I really appreciate your ratios and YES, I do have a scale. This is a real breakthrough.


        1. shauna

          Heather, I’m afraid I wouldn’t know how to adapt it to a breadmaker. I haven’t used one in years!

  33. Kendra

    Hi Shauna,
    When I started cooking gluten free for my 6 year old, my dad, who runs an organic artisian bread company, balked at the idea of using xanthan gum dispite it being “natural”. I didn’t think I could NOT use it. I almost always bake with flax meal though as my egg replacer so maybe I could add more and leave out the xanthan gum? You’ve got me very interested in investigating hydrocolloids. I thought of pectins and wonder how they would work in a bread or baked good. Any thoughts on that? I think I’m going to give it a try when I have some time for a loaf of bread to flop. :-)

  34. Jill

    I’m so excited to try this recipe!! Is there a reason NOT to make it in a loaf pan? I like to make bread for sandwiches. The round loaves are so pretty, but sometimes I want a practical loaf for slicing.

    1. Jill

      addition…I meant loaf pans of any size, not just big…I have some 3″x5″ ones that I use for other bread recipes.

  35. Cashie

    I tried the recipe, with a few substitutions because I didn’t have some of the flours and I’m too impatient to drive the two cities over to get them. I substituted sorghum for almond flour and brown rice flour for the teff. While it rose very nicely the first time, I think I goofed on the second rise (when I got them into the oven, I smashed them a bit) and so they baked up a little flat. But the taste is excellent. I’m going to try again with smaller portions to see if I can get a better rise. The chia/flax combination worked wonderfully. Thanks!

    1. Sarah G

      I followed the recipe to the T and still had the slight challenge with the flat bake-off. I think I might try re-shaping the dough before throwing in the oven next time? Or perhaps just having the second rise in the baking pan instead of transferring to the stone (although the stone did such an excellent job of browning the bottom).

      Shauna, any tips on this second rise/ flattening when moving to the oven problem.

  36. Jenn

    For now, I’m just going to have to look at these photos and drool. Even when I ate gluten, bread making ended with head shaking, a few tears, and dough in trash. But I am going to mark this post for the day I’m brave and really want warm bread from the oven. Thank you so much for sharing this detailed information.

  37. Ruth

    I made the bread last night but messed with the flours (used my gf whole grain mix of 7:3 flours to starches, mostly brown rice flour with quinioa, millet, potato starch, tapioca starch) and used the same weight of flours+starches (550g). I also baked it in a bread pan. Tasted good and had a better crumb than other gf breads I’ve tried. I will have to try it again with the correct flours.

  38. Linda

    I have been making your breads with great success. My current favorite is the rosemary focaccia. I made it with potato starch and with a cooked potato. I like it best with the potato starch. When I made it with the potato it was too wet. Still a great taste. I made the rosemary apple muffins this morning. Since I didn’t have milk powder but did have buttermilk powder I used that. They were wonderful. Great taste, chewy in a wonderful way. I’ve been waiting to get the scoop on a no gum bread. So I’ll try this tomorrow. I’m still using the buttermilk powder so I hope that works.

    1. shauna

      Julia, I’m so glad you love it! It will store on the counter until the next day. If there’s any left after that, we slice it up and throw it in the freezer. It toasts well too!

      1. Julia Sarver

        Thanks! I ate a roll yesterday with dinner and then sliced the boule and had some toasted for breakfast. It didn’t crumble! I was so excited. It’s the little things, isn’t it?

  39. Katharine Eliska Kimbriel

    LOL! I just tossed my bread into its sesame-oiled bowl to rise, and I realized that since I’m using easily-acquired teff flour (it’s brown) and buckwheat instead of milk powder, this will be a dark loaf! Also — we just had storms blow out most of the humidity in south-central Texas, and there never was a chia seed/flaxseed slurry — it went “slurp” and became a nice soft ball of seed. I whisked it back into the eggs and apple cider vinegar before adding it to the dry ingredients, so we’ll see if that works.

    I’m macrobiotic right now, so I substituted tapioca starch for the potato starch. I’ll report back once I see what I end up with —

  40. Katharine Eliska Kimbriel

    Used an egg wash and made eight rolls. Didn’t get much of a second rise — I may have left the yeast too long, it more than doubled. But flavor was excellent — the teff adds a certain something — no graininess, and a friend pronounced it good. He’s not into GF, so that’s a good sign! I’ll freeze the others tomorrow and see how they do thawed and toasted this weekend.

    Can’t wait to try the chia/flax substitute in cookies to see if the result is even better.

  41. Gudrun Schindler

    I cannot tolerate even certified gf oats. Is there anything I could substitute for the oats in the recipe?
    The bread and rolls look so yummy and most of the ingredients are nutritious, which is a big deal for gf bread.

    1. shauna

      sure! that’s why we put up the ingredients in weight. substitute anything you see fit — rice bran, quinoa flakes, etc — with the same weight as the oats.

  42. Emily

    Holy cow! I just finished my first bread from this recipe, and it’s SO delicious and SO beautiful and SO well-textured. Homemade whole wheat bread was the thing that it made me saddest to give up, but you’ve giving me something that’s very similar with the added benefit of not making me sick.

    I used a mini-pullman pan (9x4x4) for the whole batch of dough, and baked it at 425. After 40 mins, the internal temp was 195. The crust didn’t get as dark and glossy as yours, of course, but I’m able to slice it and make toast and sandwiches just like normal people.

    I’m so grateful to you for your dedication and generosity with your knowledge. Thank you!

  43. Gail

    Thank you, thank you, thank you!!!! I have been GF for 6 months and just resigned myself to ignoring bread. I’d been baking wonderful breads and pizzas for 30 years and so far all the GF bread recipes I’d tried weren’t even close and definitely were not worth the effort. This appears to be cause for encouragement. This is what I will be doing on Saturday. Can’t wait!

  44. M

    I just made this tonight with my 2.5 year old. It baked after he was down for the night, but he is so excited to eat it tomorrow morning. He and I are both GF among our other food allergies, so this is a big deal (we do better off the gums too). I’ve been able to get pretty decent flavor in my GF breads, but texture is a whole different beast. Today, I had crust. Crusty bread with a moist and, well, bread-y center. My house smells like a bakery, and I am going to have one happy kiddo in the morning. Thanks. :)

  45. Gail

    Just made this recipe and am enjoying real bread with butter and jam! It is not some crumbly excuse for bread. As a long time gluten bread baker who is now GF, I am in heaven!

  46. Lydia

    I’ve just tried this recipe for the fourth time. The first one I did I rose in a loaf pan in the refrigerator overnight. The other three I baked in my dutch oven. I am using weights. Something funny is happening. My dough gets runnier every time I leave it too rise. The first rise is tremendous, but there isn’t a second rise. For the final attempt, today’s, I only let the dough get tacky, but firm enough to make a nice ball. I placed this in the oiled dutch oven to rise and it rose very well. However it spread out and got wetter, doesn’t seem to be totally runny though. I’m just baking it as is. I’m afraid to work it anymore. The textures have been fine, a little heavy, but I expected that since I’m using potato flour. The taste is fantastic! I’m in the New Mexican Desert, I can’t remember the last time it rained. It’s so dry here that we’ve already had nasty dust storms. Due to this weather I am using lots of liquid just to get the dough to stick together. Any helpful hints would be much appreciated!! I am learning a lot and really enjoy all the wonderful information and love you share with us.

    1. shauna

      Lydia, I have certainly never encountered this problem before. I believe you buried the problem in the middle of the paragraph. You’re in very dry conditions. I’m afraid I don’t know anything about how to work with that. Might someone in your area have suggestions for how to make bread under these conditions? I’m pretty sure it’s those conditions, not the recipe! Good luck.

      1. Lydia

        Shauna, yes I agree it’s the lack of humidity. The recipes themselves are great. I am a professional baker and I recognize good recipes when I find them. I am now trying to learn the proper technique. I found something that worked last night. I made the dough just wet enough to form a ball. Getting to this point uses all the liquid you recommend plus just a splash more water. Then I poured a couple more splashes of water on the loaf and worked it in with my hands. This left me with a loaf shaped, very tacky dough which I then handled with oiled hands and set to rise in a loaf pan. I baked it as soon as it was the size I wanted and ended with 2 wonderful loaves of bread!! We can have sandwiches!! Like I said before, your recipes are excellent and learning about ratios is really freeing me as a baker and cook. I can now envision the gluten free breads and cakes I will selling to my patrons in the future. That is as soon as my babies are old enough and I found the money to open my dream bakery!! Thank you for the advice, lessons and most of all inspiration. I will not cry before a failed project and say “But I know how to bake, why didn’t it work?!” again. I will just say “I guess I’ll try something different tomorrow!”

  47. a

    my friend (also GF) and I made this over the weekend. Neither of us had made bread before, much less GF bread. We could not believe the result – how wonderful to eat bread that looks and tastes and feels like what we remember. THANK YOU! And jeez, I so wish I’d gotten myself together to make even the no-knead bread when I could… who knew how not-that-hard this could be??

  48. Paola

    I did it. My first even gluten-free bread. And it’s awesome. You are a great teacher!! I learned to bake great gluten-free bread. I just replace flours because here in Brazil I couldn’t find the ones you mentioned. And I also have to confess that I added a few extra ingredients. But for a good reason. I wanted to make gluten-free arracacha bread, which is a bread that I often bake at home. So I added arracacha and grated parmesan. It was so good. I added too much water and the dough was too sticky. But that’s me never trusting my instincts. Oh! And my bread is green, because of the green banana flour I used. You can’t imagine how proud of myself I am!

  49. laura

    i love that you are baking without the gums- i think they upset my stomach as well! does anyone know if you can make GF cakes without the gums? should one use the flax/chia slurry for cakes?

  50. Kathy

    I made this bread today. The taste is wonderful but the crust got too hard . Is this because I baked too long or was the oven temperature too hot? I would appreciate any feedback as this was only my 3rd try at gluten-free baking.

    1. shauna

      Well, there are a couple of ideas. It could be that your oven temperature is too hot. It’s a good idea to get an oven thermometer, as most ovens are off by as much as 50°! Did you take the internal temperature of the bread? It’s not an intuitive act, but it helps. You want it to be higher than 180° but no higher than 200°. That could be part of it too!

      1. Kathy

        Thanks for the reply.
        I think the oven temp was too high. I did take the internal temp which was right around 180. I think next time I will try a lower oven temp.and see what happens.All in all though the flavour of the bread is much more interesting than a standard whole-wheat loaf.

  51. Robin

    I just made this recipe and am astonished ate how close it comes to gluten bread. Before my partner was diagnosed with celiac, I did a lot of artisan baking. Since the diagnosis in Dec., I’ve been baking gf breads. Their texture has generally been pretty good but they had a weird after flavor, which I now feel fairly certain was the gums. So thanks for working this recipe out. I tweaked it a bit by adding some egg white powder for a little higher protein content. I’m looking forward to playing with adding seeds and whole grain and such. Many, many thanks!

    1. Robin

      P.S. I made another loaf today and substitute fizzy water for the reg. water (which also meant putting the yeast directly on the dry ingredients without proofing, I got a significantly better rise, with a loaf that was about 1 1/2 times the size of the one with the original recipe. Again very delicious and wheat bread like.

  52. Kathy

    Okay I have a question. In this recipe you use a whole grain flour mix. On another page on this site you have another mix. Can you clarify what baking you would do with each mix?
    Also what if you can’t find the superfine brown rice flour? Is there a substitution you can do?

  53. Sharon

    Why is the dough so much lighter than mine? Wouldn’t the buckwheat flour make it darker looking? Mine is very sloppy and isn’t rising well. Suggestions?

  54. Sharon

    Also, I wish I had not put so much salt in – but it called for 2 teaspoons. I am wondering if I got the conversions right from grams to cups.

  55. Trish

    Today was my second time to try this recipe. The first time the texture was great but the crust too hard. This time I had to eliminate the egg and dairy (thank you Shauna for including in the directions how to sub. for those items) and made 2 boules instead of rolls and they turned out fantastic! The crust turned our much better this time and the texture and taste are excellent. I don’t think I put enough water in the first time and this time I had to add an extra 1/4+ cup of water to get the texture of the dough correct. Thank you so much for this wonderful recipe!

    1. shauna

      so glad it worked for you well the second time. bread making is really an art and it generally always takes making a recipe more than once for it to work for me!

  56. Rhonda

    You just blew my mind! I can’t wait to get into the kitchen and try this. We have been having “issues” in my house and I think it is all the GF baking I have been doing. Thank you so much for sharing all your wisdom!

      1. Emily

        Even if I have to leave the eggs out too, will it still work without the vinegar? I can use lemon juice if that would help?

  57. michele

    The Sensitive Epicure seems to know much about the chemistry behind baking, indeed, about food science generally — check the comments to this post for her explanation for rejecting xanthum in gluten free baking. And thanks for the vegan alternatives for your bread — I may even bake for myself for the first time in over 10 years….

  58. Carly

    This looks so good! One question though; about how long does it take to bake on a pizza stone, all i need is an approximate time so i know when to start checking the temperature.

  59. Eimear O'Connell

    Hi Shauna,

    I may be a little late for this post but I have one question… Kneading! Is there any point at which your bread dough is kneaded? I guess the mixer ‘kneads’ it as such in the first instance, but when you shape it into boules or rolls, do you knead again at that stage?

    Forgive me if you’ve covered this before.. I a relatively new convert:-)
    By the by, I did make the bread. I made the dough WAY to wet (too wet to knead by far, it had to be poured onto the tray and ended up as a sort of flatbread/foccaccia) BUT – even at that – it TOTALLY had the texture of bread! I’ve been gluten free for a long time, I’d almost forgotten what that was like. Thank you.


  60. healing

    Can I have more bread?! Love hearing this from my teen son. A bingo! Hats off to you my on line Chef friend. I also appreciate the comments from others, another way to get great tips. I learned, too wet bread, spreads. Tasted wonderful, next time, even better.
    Can I have more! Music to the ears.
    Looking forward to more recipes.

  61. Janet

    LOVE the texture of this bread. Definitely the best crumb and crust in a gf bread I have tried (i have tried many!). Not sure of its the buckwheat flour that gives a hint of a bitter taste? What could I sub for the buckwheat, maybe millet?

  62. chandra

    wow. i was feeling better after cutting out gluten but have been having digestive problems again. i am a bread-a-holic and have been baking gluten-free breads and pastries with gums galore. i wondered if the gums were causing my new problems, and then saw your blog. i don’t know yet if it will help my digestion, but i gotta say that i just baked a loaf of the best bread i’ve had since going gluten free. my base recipe was the gluten free goddess bread recipe (for ovens). I subbed out flax seed emulsion for the xanthan gum, and quinoa for the sorghum and millet flours. i accidentally added the yeast into the dry mix, and it wasn’t the fast rising type it was supposed to be. the batter was incredibly thin and watery. i thought god this will be a disaster. remarkably it rose in the pan in a 170? oven after about 50 minutes. not as tall as the gum bread, but when it baked it came out with a lovely crispy crust and a soft, fluffy, wheat bread-y, air bubbly interior. it did not fall, and it is not anywhere near as damply dense as the gum breads i’ve been baking my evenings away on. no gums for me any longer, thank you very much.

  63. Worrier Princess

    Wow. Just made this for the second time, this time using most of the ingredients as listed instead of substituting with what I had on hand. Amazing! It looks, smells and tastes like actual bread (and good bread at that). And I’ve only been gf for 6 weeks so I still remember what bread tastes like! I put it directly on greased baking sheets to let it rise for 2 hours, and it turned out fine. Also I used club soda as suggested in one of the comments. Will definitely be passing this recipe along.

  64. Kat

    Unfortunately, the recipe didn’t give a hint as to how long to leave the bread in the oven. I’m afraid I have one loaf and four rolls that are burnt to a crisp. Major waste of money and effort, as the flours aren’t cheap. :/

  65. Kate Burns

    Pleeeeease help!! Us Australians cannot find Teff flour! Not even the African restaurants can get the stuff. Can you suggest a substitute? Pretty please..? Desperate to cook this bread, even dreamt about it last night…

    1. Sue

      I’ve used millet as a substitute and it’s been tasty. Might be easier to find, at least!

    2. Raelene

      Contact the “Green Garage” in Byron Bay – they had Bob’s Red Mill Teff flour when I was there in September. I bought some home with me!

  66. Emilie

    Shauna: thank you so so so much! Your book (Gluten-Free Girl) totally helped me turn my gluten-intolerance blues around a few years ago, and now you’ve solved the GF bread problem! I made this yesterday and it was awesome! Thanks for following your heart and sharing all this with us.

  67. Green Key

    I just bought a pizza stone and am excited to try making this! Can anyone tell me roughly how long this takes to bake when formed into 2 boules? I’d like to know when to start checking to see if it’s done.

  68. Tessa

    Thank you so much for such a great recipe. I am a baker who has worked in a wood-fired sourdough bread bakery for years and am just now trying to develop a gluten free bread for my boyfriend who is celiac. My first attempt from other sites were heavy, bland, grainy and gross. I obviously have pretty high expectations for any bread, but these were blech. But, YOURS! So so great! Truly. I added an extra egg and an extra teaspoon of salt as my first round seemed a little dry and bland. So, this time, perfection. Huge rise in the oven, deep color to the crust, nice crumb, not gummy or crumbly. I am so insanely excited to present this to my man as a victory after 4 months of failures. He will probably eat it all in one sitting. :)

  69. Shutterspeed Girl

    I was trying to adapt this recipe for my mother (recently diagnosed). She lives in a part of the world where several of these ingredients aren’t available. I’ve been able to find locally available substitutes for most of these (using your whole grain ratio, and subbing basil seeds for flax/chia).

    But then, I skidded to a halt at active dry yeast. She does have access to fresh yeast, however. How much should she use? And how would the process change?

    Yeast breads are not really a traditional part of our diet- so she has never baked any before. And it would be impossible to find any gluten-free versions commercially.

    Hoping you can help!

    1. Rene

      Hi Shutterspeed Girl –
      I’m very new to GF cooking and baking, but I’m otherwise an accomplished baker. Cake or fresh yeast can be easily substituted for active dry yeast. Each 3/5 oz. (about 17 g.) cake equals one 1/4 oz. packet of dry yeast (which is about 1 Tbsp. or 3 tsp.). So in Shauna’s recipe, you’d be using about 1/2 of a cake of fresh yeast. Some notes on fresh yeast: it should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer, and is perishable. It will last about 2 weeks in the refrigerator. When you add it to the warm water, crumble the cake of yeast so that it spreads out. Otherwise the baking process is the same. (I pulled all of the information from the Fannie Farmer Baking Book by Marion Cunningham)
      And as another encouragement/FYI, I baked the recipe last night using Bob’s Red Mill GF AP Four mix, all flax seed, and skipped the milk powder and still came up with a very yummy bread.
      Best of luck to you and your mother. I hope this was helpful, even if a bit late. :)

  70. Melissa

    Hi Shauna,

    I have been reading this blog for about two years now, but felt like I never had the need to try out any of your baking recipes, as I could eat gluten. I also recognized that baking by ratio was a nice idea, but I felt like it was too much work to incorporate into my life.

    I just got diagnosed as a Celiac a day ago, and thanks to the fact that I have been reading this site, I didn’t panic. I was able to reassure my husband that yes, we would still be eating real food. I went out and bought a scale yesterday, and am ordering some flours online. I’m diving headfirst into this thing, instead of feeling sorry for myself like I probably would have if I hadn’t seen all the great things your family eats.

    I already miss wheat bread, but I am very excited to try this recipe! Thank your for all of your tireless recipe testing, it is appreciated.

  71. Claudio

    I haven’t tried this particular recipe yet, but I want to share with the other readers some things I’ve learned from both gluten and gluten-free bread and pizza baking. I’m just an amateur but these things have really helped me.

    Baking with short rise and more yeast is a great way to get started, since you can see it happening quickly and therefore don’t have to worry about it. But I strongly believe once you have made breads a few times and got the hang of it, moving to longer rises is the way to go.

    Baking with less yeast but with a much longer fermentation time can (in theory, at least) improve digestibility. Longer fermentation time will allow the enzymes in the flour and yeast to break down starches into sugars. The yeast will also produce a small amount of acids such as lactic and acetic acids that contribute greatly to flavor. Longer fermentation drastically improves flavor. You can start with regular baker’s yeast and end up with a very slight sourdough taste. Even if you don’t like in-your-face sourdough as made with a starter (which it doesn’t have to be, but that’s another story), the very subtle flavor from a long baker’s yeast fermentation should be very pleasant. Plus, avoiding large amounts of yeast means less of the bitter flavor from dead yeast and less of the smell, which is pleasant in small amounts but quickly detracts from the bread aroma when it gets stronger. Shauna’s recipe uses a reasonable amount of yeast, unlike many floating around the internet, so this is less of a concern.

    Try a tiny amount of active dry yeast, such as 1/16th or 1/8th teaspoon per 500 grams of flour (it’s around 0.1% by weight) and let it ferment at room temperature for 24 hours. Or, use around 1/4 teaspoon per 500 grams and put the dough in the fridge after mixing is complete. Leave it in for a few days, and before baking take it out and let it warm up for a few hours. Three days seems to be the minimum for a noticeable flavor improvement. If you keep it in longer it’ll continue to improve for a few days. The max I tried with gluten-free bread was 7 days and it was still good, and I also got a nice brown color that another chunk of the same dough didn’t produce after 3 days. This is probably due to excess sugars from the enzymes’ starch breakdown (i.e. sugar the yeast didn’t consume yet). It’s like getting the nice browning from sugar without having to add any.

    I did try a longer fermentation with Shauna’s no gum pizza crust recipe and got a very subtle flavor out of it. I’m going to try again with a longer period still. It requires more planning ahead of time, of course, but I also like that I can make it and clean up all the dough making stuff and only worry about the baking stuff on the day I bake it.

    Another tip for bread baking is trapping steam for the first 10 minutes or so. I tried all the tricks from bread books like filling a pan with cold water, spraying the oven, etc. which all did nothing. It’s much easier to try something like a clay baker (Ikea has one), a Dutch oven or even a stainless steel mixing bowl. I use one that fits perfectly over my stone so the steam from the dough itself is trapped, which really improves the crust. It’ll be softer and crackly instead of tough and leathery. It really helps with gluten-free breads I’ve made. Be super careful not to burn yourself when removing it (get those thick gloves from a hardware store, as most kitchen oven mitts will either burn or burn you), and (I’m sorry to have to say this) please no lawyers my way if you do burn yourself.

  72. Erica

    Hi Shauna,
    I’ve followed your blog periodically for ideas for GF friends, but now that I’m trying GF myself, I’m much more invested in finding recipes. I’ve been addicted to 100% sprouted grain breads for a while now, but most recipes I see (and certainly anything on the store shelf) are sprouted wheat. Those recipes that are GF are usually quick breads instead of yeasted. Have you experimented much with sprouted grain yeasted breads? Thanks!

  73. Maryam

    My husband made this for me (a former bread addict) and I have to say that it’s the best gluten-free bread I’ve had. And it’s up there with some of the best wholemeal wheat crusty loaves I’ve tried. Thank you so much for this recipe!

  74. Bobbi

    Looking for a gluten free popped amaranth foccacia bread recipe, is it possible, from someone who is new to gluten free.
    Thank you Gluten free girl & the Chef :) for all your incredible recipes & openness to the gluten free world :)

  75. AmandaonMaui

    I made mine too wet too. I tried to go by the image, but I just went too far. My loaf also ended up pretty flat. The first rise was great, but it never rose again. :(

    I also used dark teff flour instead of light, so I have a much darker loaf.

  76. Bobbi


    I make GF bread for my mother who has cut it out for dietary reasons, and for my bf’s sister who is gluten intolerant. We use Bean flour in place of almond flour, and honestly, just mix bean flour with rice flour in a storage container, and combine the measurements for the two in a recipe. Also, instead of milk powder or goats milk powder, we use baby formula. My daughter has a milk and soy allergy, and we used Neocate formula (which is expensive, but if soy can be used, prosobee or the generic brands work too!) Never heard that you could leave the gums out, but I’ll try the flax seed! my mom and bf’s sister are having kind of a hard time adjusting to GF bread, due to the consistency and cost, which was why I started making it.

    1. shauna

      Bobbi, take a look at the post we wrote called “Why We Don’t Use Cups.” After that, you’re going to want to buy a scale.

  77. Pei

    hi, im from Malaysia.
    read some of your articles, and your recipes.
    Very nice to read.
    Here we never heard of ‘gluten free’. Until i sent my son to special school. The teachers told me if i let my son take gluten-free food, it can help my son’s hyperactive.
    So, i start liikong for gluten-free food. I cen buy cereals, cookies, but i can’t get bread!
    There are no recipe book about gluten-free at all here. So i search online.
    Many recipes i found need xanthan gum, which very hard to find here. I found a shop selling, but they don’t sell in small amount. And very expensive. So i continue search for recipes that without xanthan gum.
    That’s how i found U.
    Thanks for the bread recipe without xanthan gum. Im going to try it very soon.
    And i also like to ask u, can i replace xanthan gum with flexseed and chia seed, the slurry thing in other recipes that need xanthan gum??
    Thank you again for the great recipes and the beautiful food pictures.

    1. Shuku

      Pei, I’m from Malaysia too, and I’m gluten-free as well. The chia and flax seed ought to work for most, but if you need guar gum, feel free to drop me a private message at It will work as a substitute for xanthan gum (I can’t get it here, but a friend brought it for me from Australia, and I have plenty to share. :) )

  78. Lori Snyder

    This didn’t work so well for me. To get my dough to look like the picture of the dough in the mixing bowl I had to add a lot more water. I probably added a cup extra. I think that was my mistake. Is it ok to have a dryer dough before the first rise?

    Since my dough was so wet, I baked it like a no-knead bread in a dutch oven. It turned out ok but doesn’t look at all like the pictures. It’s edible but not what I was hoping for. Perhaps after this loaf is finished, I’ll try again without adding all that extra water.

  79. Tasty Yummies (Gluten-free, unprocessed and whole)

    Oh my gosh!! I am officially obsessed with this recipe! You have once again outdone yourself. I made them as rolls and made a couple of small substitutions: I didn’t have potato starch in my pantry as I had just run out, so I went with tapioca starch instead. Also, I couldn’t find certified gluten-free oat flour, so I just made my own by processing Bob’s Red Mill’s gluten-free rolled oats in my food processor to a fine flour-like consistency. It was super easy!

    These rolls are super crusty, soft in the center and full of flavor. I thought I was in love with your last crusty bread recipe, this is even better!! Here is the post about the jam I made, that I made these rolls specifically for:

  80. Zoe

    The bread is baking now.
    I substituted:

    200g white rice flour, potato flour, tapioca flour mix for the teff and oat flour
    100g chickpea flour for the almond flour

    goat whey to replace all the water (had it left over from homemade ricotta)

    used all flaxseed to replace gums

    used all buckwheat, no milk powder

    And otherwise, followed the recipe. Except I added too much water at the end. The rice flour really soaked up the water, and I overcompensated. The mass rose well but was not obedient when I tried to shape it. I baked it in loaf tins instead to perhaps support the rise.

    I made this bread using what I had and the substitutions I made were not educated beyond swapping flours by weight.

    One thing I realized, I make better food when I stop judging and teetering. I powered through this recipe! I didn’t give myself time to stop and worry.

    Thanks Shauna.

  81. Lisa M

    Hi Shauna! I have sensitivities to gluten, yeast, and cow’s dairy – still checking on eggs. Trace amounts don’t bother me, but I haven’t had a “fluffy” bread in 18 months. Any tips on yeast free bread?

    1. shauna

      I’m afraid that yeast-free breads are nigh impossible. But soda bread. That should become your friend.

  82. Lee

    Hi Shauna,

    Can’t wait to try this recipe. I’m determined to make a really good GF loaf of bread yet! Can you let me know what I can substitute the milk powder with as I have a lactose intolerance.


  83. sue

    I purchased a pain de mie pan after looking at the King Arthur flour site and I love how bread comes out with this pan. Putting the lid on it and allowing the bread to rise has been nearly fool-proof. I’ve come out with nice big square loafs, even when I use (gasp) a mix. I will try the chia though because I agree about the texture of the gf loafs with the xanthan gum. It is crumbly like corn bread and bothers me some. My adult daughter has been gluten free for over a year now after testing positive to an antibody gluten blood test about 2 years ago, and I have been gluten free for about 4 months despite a negative blood test. I know it makes a difference for me because when I “cheat” and eat gluten I almost always feel ill the next couple of days. I have read and appreciate very much both of your books and also enjoy your blog very much. Keep it up!

  84. Brittany

    Hi Shauna!

    I’ve been a long-time follower of your blog and I have loved every recipe I’ve tried so far :) This one was especially amazing! I made it into buns and practically burned my mouth eating one straight out of the oven – they smelled too great to wait! Anyway, I just wanted to thank you for being such a great resource and writing such a great blog. I’m going to go make a bunwich for dinner :)

  85. Jen Maraia

    Great recipe! I just pulled these out of the oven and they smell and look amazing! I actually haven’t tasted them yet, but wanted to let those know who have asked for approximate bake time…my two small boules took about 25 minutes…but I am at high altitude in Colorado, so it may differ for those of you at sea level. I can also vouch for warming the oven just a bit, turning it off, and then letting the dough rise in there. Worked like a charm. Anyway, thanks for the recipe Shauna! I am going to go taste them now… nomnomnom


    so glad to have found this site. i have managed to adapt many foods for my gluten free daughter, but bread has been a challenge. I searched with Laurels Kitchen bread making + gluten free because the book they wrote is the best Ive ever read on the peculiarities of the different flours and adapting for a perfect loaf. We are baking this weekend, its finally cold in the Northeast, and I need the smell of fresh bread baking and the warmth it brings to fill my house. Thanks so much for sharing

  87. nelda

    Oh wow. I just made these rolls. Not only are they wonderful tasting but they have the most bread-like texture of any gluten free recipe I have tried. The rolls finished baking within 15 min. in my convection oven so it was fast too. I made a few little changes to the recipe. I added an extra egg and one tablespoon of honey because I wanted a moist bread. It was perfect…nice and brown on the outside and moist inside. I can’t thank you enough for this great recipe

  88. Regina Davis

    I’m also allergic to oats and almonds, do you have any adaptations of this recipe with something different?

  89. bucker

    hi there…
    have been trying to live GF/soy/corn/cow’s dairy free for about 2 years — truly note it when i eat any of these. this recipe has yeast (yes, i know the dough needs to be “leavened” with something), potatoe starch and milk powder but i have intolerance to them.
    welcome any substitute suggestions?

  90. Kathryn Vere

    I would love to try this recipe, but I’m allergic to vinegar! Brings me out in a rash… please could you suggest an alternative ingredient I coudl substitute the cider vinegar with? Thank you very much! :-)

  91. Mr. Bill

    If I was to add Sunflower Seeds and or Walnut pieces would I have to make any changes to the base recipe? I am baking this today and this question is for future baking.


  92. Ecaterin

    *arrives on this page merely minutes later*

    I KNEW you’d have conquered this one (yeast raised, no xanthan, which means unbound glutamate free)!!! Thank you sooooo much for concocting a gum-free yeast-raised bread that works – I cannot wait to try it. I shall get chia seeds asap (flax having proved a problem in the past) and bake bread TOMORROW :)

    I honestly could live without GF bread myself, but for teenaged boys’ lunches, bread makes a big difference in my sanity-through-keeping-things-simple approach :)


  93. Ecaterin

    Wooooow :) I’ve never, in 14 years, made a GF bread that had a wheat-type chewy crust. Amazing – I’m completely blown away by what you’ve created in this recipe 😀 And the internal structure was such that I let the roll cool for 10 minutes, and then sliced cleanly through it with an electric bread knife – no collapsing or squishing.

    I have a question for you though! :) I ran into something I run into all the time in GF cooking – and since we’re living the same TOWN and using exactly the same FLOURS in all likelihood, I’ll run this one past you! Any recipe I make needs about half again more water than is called for – and I mean, the dough is dry and won’t even come off of the Kitchen Aid paddle, let alone mix like a stiff batter. Truly too dry, not just “it’s awfully wet cause I’m used to wheat baking” too dry 😛 I’ve made GF bread for so many years, I *know* the texture I’m looking for, so I just ignore the water amount called for in the recipe and use my eye. Why is this, I wonder? My flours all come from Madison, the PCC or Whole Foods. Sometimes I get my starches from Uwajimaya and I know that those are definitely dryer….but with the glutamate concerns, I’ve switched to HFS for the starches, too. Same result. Somehow, I don’t think my kitchen is 50% more arid than yours 😀 So why are all my flours so dry, I wonder?

    Secondly, my rise time is only 1/2 of what other recipes call for. I’m using Bob’s Red mill bulk bag of bread yeast from Madison Market’s fridge, so yay, powerful yeast I suppose. I usually do a standard rise in the oven as per the long lost wheat bread days, but this time I followed your recipe and I let this batch of dough rise at room temperature. It more than doubled in only 45 minutes – two hours would have had bread dough taking over my kitchen like the plant in Little Shop of Horrors, and probably exhausting the yeast into the bargain. And it was plenty risen in the end product, too.

    VERY PERPLEXING 😀 Up to this point, I figured whatever cooks were writing the GF recipes must be at a different elevation or using fours from substantially different sources. But neither of those things are true in this case 😀

    TY for such a great recipe!! Going to try small loafs today 😀

  94. Lezlee

    I’m trying to find almond flour. The only one around where I live is Bob’s Red Mill but the package says “almond meal/flour”. Is this the right product? If not, where can I get almond flour online? Thanks!

  95. Shelley

    Here’s a link to a quick article about chia….yes it is hydrophilic :)

    Here’s a baking question for you! I have been baking gluten free for two years and I’m just curious why vinegar is almost always an ingredient. You are so scientific and thorough in your baking I thought you might know. :)
    Thanks for your amazing blog!

    1. shauna

      You bake it until it measures at least 180* and the top is crackly crisp. That varies by oven, but I would start checking at 25 minutes.

  96. Gloria Flynn

    This recipe is delicious! Thank you so much for sharing. There is nothing better then a crispy crunchy dinner bread. I have a great whole grain gluten free sandwich bread recipe, the link is above. I hope you enjoy that as much as I enjoyed yours!!

  97. Andrea

    Just thought I would leave a comment about my experiences working with your yeast recipes in case it might be helpful to others and see if you might have anything to add. I have made this recipe about three times with only one true success (oddly, it was the first time). I have struggled with getting a good second rise and also an end product that is not too hard and dry. I have also made your pizza dough, and found the result dense and hard. I do use a higher percentage of whole grain (70%) than you now do because I really need to avoid too much starch, AND I also cannot eat eggs. Both of these may partially account for part of the challenges I have encountered. However, as I have learned from you, Shauna, GF batters and doughs need to be wetter than their glutenous counterparts, so I played in this direction. I have had MUCH greater success making my yeast dough more like a thick batter (like that of drop biscuits) and pouring it into a pan or quickly spreading/shaping it into a crust.

    When I make the pizza crust, the risen dough batter is thick enough to handle with the hands, but it is definitely NOT kneadable. I preheat my pizza stone, sprinkle on a little flour of some sort, and then quickly spread out a ball of the dough on to the stone with my hands. If it starts to break up and I want the crust to be larger, I just grab little bits of dough and build onto the existing crust (quickly). As I am doing this, the crust is already starting to bubble up on the hot stone. I never got any significant rise or bubbling when I made the dough thick enough to roll, and I was very frustrated by trying to transfer it to the stone without it falling apart.

    I have had more success with getting rise in the pizza crust recipe, so the last time I made bread, I just used that recipe as my template. I took half of the dough and poured it into a loaf pan, and it rose all the way to the top! The end result was great — a little crunchy on top, tender in the middle, and light and airy! The other half I mixed in the zest and juice of one orange and chopped apricots and made yeasted muffins. They were fab!

    Oh, one thing I do especially like about the bread recipe is the addition of a little vinegar and the vinegar-baking powder-soda formula as a sub for eggs. I like these so much that now I add a bit of vinegar to almost all my recipes (to mimic the natural higher acidity that wheat has) and use the other formula in all yeast recipes.

    1. shauna

      Andrea, gluten-free bread is a difficult animal. Having to do it without eggs is VERY difficult. I’ve tried. So, a few suggestions for you. 1) I’m pretty sure the results you have seen have been from the combination of more whole grains and the lack of eggs. Mostly, the lack of eggs. 2) Definitely, wetter is better. So go ahead and add more water. 3) My favorite egg replacement is a combination of psyllium and chia. A good friend of mine has been using that in this bread with good success. 4) I’m starting to see that gluten-free breads really don’t rise the same way that gluten doughs do. There’s some rise, but not that much. Instead, what you’re looking for is the flours and water to fully hydrate. Also, you want the hydrocolloids (psyllium or ground flax or xanthan gum) to have time to stretch out and touch every part of moisture in the dough. That’s how you get a dough that works. And that’s a matter of timing. Let it rise too long and those hydrocolloids become like glue, which explains the tough texture. So, let it sit for no longer than an hour for greater success.

    2. shauna

      Andrea, gluten-free bread is a difficult animal. Having to do it without eggs is VERY difficult. I’ve tried. So, a few suggestions for you. 1) I’m pretty sure the results you have seen have been from the combination of more whole grains and the lack of eggs. Mostly, the lack of eggs. 2) Definitely, wetter is better. So go ahead and add more water. 3) My favorite egg replacement is a combination of psyllium and chia. A good friend of mine has been using that in this bread with good success. 4) I’m starting to see that gluten-free breads really don’t rise the same way that gluten doughs do. There’s some rise, but not that much. Instead, what you’re looking for is the flours and water to fully hydrate. Also, you want the hydrocolloids (psyllium or ground flax or xanthan gum) to have time to stretch out and touch every part of moisture in the dough. That’s how you get a dough that works. And that’s a matter of timing. Let it rise too long and those hydrocolloids become like glue, which explains the tough texture. So, let it sit for no longer than an hour for greater success.

  98. Andrea

    Thank you very much for all the additional helpful info, Shauna! You’re the best! Any particular reason you prefer chia over flax? I haven’t tried psyllium yet. Yes, I always use some flax or chia in my baked goods as an egg replacer and also because I don’t use any gums.

  99. Katrina

    This looks spectacular! Unfortunately, in addition to my gluten intolerance I am also severely affected by yeast. It has been impossible to find gluten-free, yeast-free bread and I’ve decided to try baking my own, but I’m clueless when it come to estimating substitutions for yeast. Baking soda and vinegar? Might you have an idea of what quantity of each to use?

  100. Sharon

    I just made these this evening. I was so happy to learn about the gums and excited to see a new way to make gluten free bread. These were delicious and the texture is so much better. I ground my own almonds and GF oats to make the flours and used tapioca flour in place of the arrowroot powder since I didn’t have any. The dough also sat in a greased bowl covered with plastic for more than 3 hours because i had some taxi-ing of teens to do. This is the first time I have made GF bread that is worth eating! Thank you so much. My husband and son have Celiac disease and I know they will be very happy and grateful, too.

  101. Suzy

    I have made this bread about 10 times now in a bread machine and just wanted to leave a note for those who might be wondering if it works. It does! The first 7 or so times I didn’t have almond flour so subbed millet/spelt instead. It worked well, and I thought the bread was great, but now that I’ve used the almond flour I think it is better – the bread is a little moister. Actually I was using almond meal, which is a little coarser, but it seems good.

    Anyway, I have a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine. When I make the bread I combine all the dry ingredients (flours, milk powder, salt and sugar) then put them in the bread pan. I make the slurry with flax/chia and boiling water (I usually use 90 gm water as I find it too thick with less), let it cool then mix it up with the vinegar, eggs and water. I add that to the bread pan and then put the yeast in the dispenser. I use the regular 4 hour bread cycle set to Large with a Medium crust. The first few loaves I had to add more water while it was mixing, but lately just the one cup added at the start has been fine. Once the bread is done I usually let it cool on a rack for a few hours before slicing it.

    I should probably try making it by hand too, but it’s been so easy in the machine so far that I’ve been using the time to try other things like scones and pizza dough.

    Thanks for the website Shauna!

    1. Carly

      Good to know! I have that same bread machine. I’ve made this bread twice, and would love to try the bread machine! That would be so much easier. Thanks for posting!

    2. Carina

      Suzy, you mention in your post that you have subbed “millet/spelt”. You should know that spelt is not a gluten free grain. Millet certainly is, but

  102. Nancy

    Can anyone tell me the formula to replace gums in other recipes? For example, I’ve learned to use 1 tsp. gum for each cup of gluten free flour. Is there a similar conversion available for the flax/chia seed goop?

    Additionally, I wonder if I have this right for replacing one egg: 1 t. baking powder + 1/4 tsp. baking soda + 1 oz. apple cider vinegar. Is this a universal formula across most baked goods or specific to the boule recipe posted here?

    Thank you!!!

    1. shauna

      Nancy, I have been replacing any gums in my old recipes with an equal volume of psyllium husk. It seems to work every time!

      1. Nancy

        Thanks Shauna!
        I’ll give it a try, in spite of an allergy to the stuff. Hopefully, the small quantity and heat from baking will render it safe. So you’re not using the chia/flax slurry as a puffer?

        And Shauna, did I have that formula right for replacing one egg? (I halved the amounts in your recipe calling for 2 eggs)??

        1. shauna

          Oh, don’t use anything to which you are allergic! The chia and flax works great too. I’m going to let someone else answer the egg question as I have never used that method.

  103. Lucy

    Oh, i just have to get in the end of the line and say a massive Thank You! for putting this up! I only happened across you looking to make some healthy snacks for a customer to take into hospital for labour (used your dough, mixed in dried cranberries and toasted pumpkin seeds, oiled hands and shaped into flattened batons. Came out lovely :)
    However a working bread recipe is huge, and so is not having xanthan. My bf hasn’t touched bread in years, and i am so excited!
    More power to yer elbow, girl 😉

  104. Erin

    I have found your website awhile ago and have enjoyed exploring it. I still feel very new the gluten free baking. My little family does not like rice flour (at all). I am trying to make bread that does not include rice. Also my daughter who has celiac cannot have oats at this time either. What would be a good substitute for the oats in this flour? Also would you please write an article on how you understood the ratios of gf bread making? I so want to understand but I still struggle. Thank you so very much.

  105. Shannon | JustAsDelish

    Thank you for sharing this recipe, I’ve been looking high and low for a recipe without the gums. I tried this recipe but the bread turn out hard inside.
    I substitute teff flour with rice flour and arrowroot flour with tapioca flour. After the dough rise for 2 hours, it was wet and tacky that I couldn’t cut them into balls. they was funny shapes because i couldn’t get the dough off my fingers.
    I didn’t know what went wrong, suspected might be the hot temperature where I live. any advice?

  106. Ashley

    Can I use psyllium husk instead of the flax and chia seed? If yes, how much?
    If no, can I substitute the chia seek for more flax seed?

    Thank you! Ashley

  107. Virginia Mangrum

    Where do you buy your ingredients? Mostly the flours and other dry ingredients? I’m new to the gluten free world, and it has been made obvious to me that Wal-Mart is no longer in the question. :)

  108. Jen

    I made this bread today and am so happy with the results! I am newly diagnosed with celiac and have tried a couple different types of bread, all of which were fine for toast or a grilled cheese, but I knew I would miss bread like the homebaked bread we love with soup. I made a trip to the coop today to get all of the flours and made this bread this afternoon to go with sausage, potato and cabbage soup with red onion. My tummy and my family are happy this evening!

  109. Mun

    Hi Shauna,
    Recently my mum is highly suspect of ALS or motor neuron disease, and she has to go on a gluten free, and a minimal free-glutamate diet. Your website and recipes are very useful. Thank you. Would I be able to request if you could help me with a basic recipe for sandwich bread. I am very new at baking and having problems with getting a lot of ingredients, also a lot of the ingredients are very hard to find in my country. Would you be able to help me with a the most basic bread recipe (minimal ingredients) which is gluten free and has minimal free-glutamate? Really appreciate your advice and help. BTW- Your website is the GREAT and I think you are doing a great job to help a lot of people. Thank you.

  110. Barb C

    Hi, Shauna – thank you so much for this bread recipe. I tried it this weekend and think I have to play with it a little. I added more water than the recipe as the dough was very dry initially. It rose, but then when I formed 2 loaves, they went flat. I may try using my no-knead bread techniques and see if I get more rise. The flavor was great! I have made gluten bread via the no-knead method weekly for the last 3 years, but have been gluten free for most of this year. I would love to make a bread the whole family likes and not make separate loaves I can’t enjoy. Thank you for so generously sharing your recipes.

    1. shauna

      Barb, the water you need varies with the flours you use, the humidity in your kitchen, and a dozen other variables. Bread is finicky! One think you can do is make the dough pretty wet, and let it do a slow rise in the refrigerator overnight. That builds flavor but it also helps the dough tighten up so you can form loaves! Have fun playing.

  111. Amanda Whelan

    Thanks for all your hard work and great recipes!
    I’ve just taking this bread and rolls out of the oven and I’m absolutely delighted with the results, I’ve just one question, I seem to always get a yeasty taste from my breads is this normal? I use Dove quick yeast?
    Any feedback would be really appreciated!

  112. Carol Ann Rowland


    I am in the process of making this right now. I am doing it all by weight. My chia/flax “slurry” is more like a gelatinous blob, I would have thought it would have a bit of liquid to it but it really doesn’t. Is this okay?

  113. Carol Ann Rowland

    Thank you thank you thank you. I had posted about my chia flax slurry being a big gelatinous blob. I didn’t add more water and just put it in the blender with the egg and vinegar mixture, so it would blend in okay.

    Excellent bread! I am so relieved to have something good to eat. Was adjusting to needing a celiac and dairy free diet when I realized I was having a severe reaction to xanthan and guar gum and have been so depressed about not having good things to bake. I’ll have to make it all myself apparently but at least, with this recipe, I will have something good to eat.

    I let my husband have a bite of my first roll and he agreed it’s as good as gluten bread, and better than anything store bought.

    I appreciated I have posted a link on facebook and am going to buy your iPad app immediately. Thank you so much!

  114. Holly

    So sorry please ignore my note! I meant this for a different recipe on a completely different site!!

    On another note, thank you so much for your beautiful writing. Your love of the nourishment of good food, your love for your family, and your love of humanity truly shine through in you writing. You are an inspiration not only to those of us who are gluten free but to all of us who care about others.

  115. Ken Mattsson

    Just made this in a breadmaker and it came out great! It’s go great to have something that’s like whole wheat bread. I don’t like the Wonder Bread type of light bread, I want something that fights back! I didn’t have oat flour or tapioca starch so I substituted quinoa flour and glutenous white rice flour instead. I’ll have to experiment, but I think this will be my go to bread recipe from now on!

  116. Dawn Schell

    My hubby bought me a proofing oven, and ladies if you are serious about bread making you should really consider getting one. Many of the cooking supply websites have them (ie. King Arthur Flour). We try to keep our home at a lower temp to conserve energy. The proofing oven is great and when your done it folds flat and goes in the pantry cabinet.

  117. Linda

    This bread is consistently so good. Holds together so well, and slices and toasts easily the next day. I might not make another bread again. (I did make another one form another site and it is a crumbly mess even though I know all the tricks. sigh)